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Kambodza (2008)

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Kambodza 2008 roku

 Kambodza
Podzial administracyjny 20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural)


provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev


municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh), Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 34% (male 2,405,561/female 2,355,404)


15-64 years: 62.4% (male 4,234,701/female 4,500,994)


65 years and over: 3.6% (male 189,090/female 310,154) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca
Lotniska 17 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 11


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Terytorium total: 181,040 sq km


land: 176,520 sq km


water: 4,520 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Tlo historyczne Most Kambodzans consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Wietnam) weakened the empire, ushering w a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection w 1863 and it became part of French Indochina w 1887. Following Japoniaese occupation w Swiat War II, Kambodza gained full independence from Francja w 1953. In kwiecien 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Kambodzans died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A grudzien 1978 Wietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Wietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections w 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting w 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections w 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered w early 1999. Some of the remaining Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal dla crimes against humanity. Elections w lipiec 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In pazdziernik 2004, King SIHANOUK abdicated the throne due to illness and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held w Kambodza w kwiecien 2007, and there was little w the way of pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections are scheduled dla lipiec 2008.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 25.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $915.5 million


expenditures: $1.101 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Phnom Penh


geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E


time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; rainy, monsoon season (maj to listopad); dry season (grudzien to kwiecien); little seasonal temperature variation
Linia brzegowa 443 km
Konstytucja promulgated 21 wrzesien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Kingdom of Kambodza


conventional short form: Kambodza


local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)


local short form: Kampuchea


former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Kambodza
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.24 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.98 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI


embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh


mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546


telephone: [855] (23) 728-000


FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH


chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011


telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742


FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Southeast Asian states must maintain border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Tajlandia dispute sections of boundary z missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Kambodzan territory; maritime boundary z Wietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Kambodza accuses Tajlandia of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $698.2 million pledged w grants and concession loans dla 2007 by international donors (2007)
Ekonomia From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion w the garment sector and tourism. The US and Kambodza signed a Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Kambodza a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and established a bonus dla improving working conditions and enforcing Kambodzan labor laws and international labor standards w the industry. With the styczen 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Kambodza-based textile producers were forced to compete directly z lower-priced producing countries such as Chiny and Indie. Better-than-expected garment sector performance led to more than 8% growth w 2007. Its vibrant garment industry employs more than 350,000 people and contributes more than 70% of Kambodza's exports. The Kambodzan government has committed itself to a policy supporting high labor standards w an attempt to maintain buyer interest. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Kambodza's territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream dla the government if commercial extraction begins. Mining also is attracting significant investor interest, particularly w the northeastern parts of the country, and the government has said opportunities exist dla mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. In 2006, a US-Kambodza bilateral Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed and the first round of discussions took place w early 2007. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly, z foreign arrivals reaching 2 million w 2007. In 2007 the government signed a joint venture agreement z two companies to form a new national airline. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Kambodzan government is working z bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Swiat Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs. The major economic challenge dla Kambodza over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment w which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Kambodza's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly w the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 206.6 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 82 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 134 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Gulf of Tajlandia 0 m


highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining dla gems w the western region along the border z Tajlandia have resulted w habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; w rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Khmer 90%, Wietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Kurs waluty riels per US dollar - 4,006 (2007), 4,103 (2006), 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 pazdziernik 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 styczen 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 luty 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 lipiec 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 pazdziernik 2006), BIN CHHIN (since 5 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers w theory appointed by the monarch; w practice named by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Eksport - partnerzy US 53.3%, Hong Kong 15.2%, Niemcy 6.6%, UK 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue z a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined w black w the center of the red band


note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building w its design
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 31%


industry: 26%


services: 43% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 9.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.9%


highest 10%: 34.8% (2004)
Narkotyki narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some w the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
Import 82 million kWh (2005)
Import $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 3,585 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Import - partnerzy Hong Kong 18.1%, Chiny 17.5%, Tajlandia 13.9%, Tajwan 12.7%, Wietnam 9%, Singapur 5.3%, South Korea 4.9%, Japonia 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 9 listopad 1953 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12% (2007 est.)
Przemysl tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 58.45 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 65.74 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 50.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 2,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided dla w the constitution and formed w grudzien 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Sila robocza 7 million (2003 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 75%


industry: NA%


services: NA% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 2,572 km


border countries: Laos 541 km, Tajlandia 803 km, Wietnam 1,228 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 20.44%


permanent crops: 0.59%


other: 78.97% (2005)
Jezyki Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
System prawny primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority w Kambodza (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, z influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms)


elections: National Assembly - last held 27 lipiec 2003 (next to be held w lipiec 2008); Senate - last held 22 styczen 2006 (next to be held w styczen 2011)


election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2 (styczen 2006)
Zywotnosc total population: 61.29 years


male: 59.27 years


female: 63.4 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 73.6%


male: 84.7%


female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Tajlandia, between Tajlandia, Wietnam, and Laos
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 586 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,889,909 GRT/2,682,881 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 487, chemical tanker 10, container 9, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1


foreign-owned: 463 (Kanada 6, Chiny 166, Cypr 9, Egipt 14, Estonia 1, Gabon 1, Grecja 5, Hong Kong 11, Indonezja 1, Japonia 3, South Korea 29, Lotwa 2, Liban 7, Nigeria 2, Rumunia 1, Rosja 112, Singapur 2, Syria 32, Tajwan 1, Turcja 20, Ukraina 27, UAE 2, US 6, Jemen 3) (2007)
Wojsko Royal Kambodzan Armed Forces: Royal Kambodzan Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Kambodzan Air Force (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 9 listopad (1953)
Narodowosc noun: Kambodzan(s)


adjective: Kambodzan
Naturalne zagrozenia monsoonal rains (czerwiec to listopad); flooding; occasional droughts
Surowce naturalne oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Kambodzan People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front dla an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Kambodza or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 13,995,904


note: estimates dla this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 35% (2004)
Przyrost naturalny 1.729% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2, FM 17, shortwave NA (2003)
Linie kolejowe total: 602 km


narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.021 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female


total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: mobile-phone systems are widely used w urban areas to bypass deficiencies w the fixed-line network; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by increasing competition among service providers, is increasing and stands at about 8 per 100 persons


domestic: adequate landline and/or cellular service w Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding w rural areas


international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 32,800 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.14 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 9 (including 2 TV relay stations z French and Wietnamese broadcasts); excludes 18 regional relay stations (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly low, flat plains; mountains w southwest and north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.12 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 2.5% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2005)
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