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Cambodia (2002)

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Cambodia 2002 year

Administrative divisions 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.7% (male 2,646,883; female 2,550,015)

15-64 years: 55.8% (male 3,373,692; female 3,758,736)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 182,149; female 263,849) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, rubber, corn, vegetables
Airports 20 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 16 15

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 2 1 (2002)
Area total: 181,040 sq km

land: 176,520 sq km

water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Background Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.
Birth rate 32.93 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $363 million

expenditures: $532 million, including capital expenditures of $225 million (2000 est.)
Capital Phnom Penh
Climate tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 443 km
Constitution promulgated 21 September 1993
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form: Cambodia

local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea

local short form: Kampuchea

former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic
Currency riel (KHR)
Death rate 10.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $829 million (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY

embassy: 16, Street 228 (between streets 51 and 63), Phnom Penh

mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546

telephone: [855] (23) 216-436

FAX: [855] (23) 216-437
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG

chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742

FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Disputes - international demarcation of boundaries with Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam is nearing completion; accuses Thailand of moving or destroying boundary markers and encroachment, of not respecting its claims, and of sealing off access to the Preah Vihear temple ruin awarded to Cambodia by the ICJ in 1962; accuses Vietnam of territorial encroachments and initiating armed border incidents in seven provinces, despite substantial demarcation efforts to date; disputes several offshore islands with Vietnam, which prevents delimitation of a maritime boundary
Economic aid - recipient $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors
Economy - overview Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5%. GDP growth for 2000 had been projected to reach 5.5%, but the worst flooding in 70 years severely damaged agricultural crops, and high oil prices hurt industrial production, and growth for the year is estimated at only 4%. In 2001, severe floods damaged an estimated 15% of the area devoted to rice. Tourism now is Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before the September 11 terrorist attacks in the US. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. On the brighter side, the government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.
Electricity - consumption 122.76 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 132 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 62%

hydro: 38%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Environment - current issues illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Ethnic groups Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Exchange rates riels per US dollar - 3,895.0 (January 2002), 3,918.5 (2001), 3,840.8 (2000), 3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since NA) and TOL LAH (since NA)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and apppointed by the king
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $1.05 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish
Exports - partners US 46.4%, Vietnam 26.1%, Germany 5.6%, Singapore 5.0%, UK 3.9% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band
GDP purchasing power parity - $18.7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 50%

industry: 15%

services: 35% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 35,769 km

paved: 4,165 km

unpaved: 31,604 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 34% (1997)
Illicit drugs narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $1.4 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles
Imports - partners Singapore 22.5%, Thailand 19.8%, Hong Kong 15.6%, China 4.9%, Vietnam 4.9% (2000)
Independence 9 November 1953 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Infant mortality rate 64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.6% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 2,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Labor force 6 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,572 km

border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Land use arable land: 20.96%

permanent crops: 0.61%

other: 78.43% (1998 est.)
Languages Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Legal system primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years
Legislative branch bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies"; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held NA July 2003); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%; seats by party - CPP 64, FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.1 years

male: 54.81 years

female: 59.5 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 35%

male: 48%

female: 22% (1990 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,889,404 GRT/2,740,232 DWT

ships by type: bulk 37, cargo 312, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 5, container 7, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 8, British Virgin Islands 1, Bulgaria 3, China 21, Cyprus 15, Denmark 1, Egypt 7, Estonia 1, Georgia 1, Germany 1, Greece 12, Honduras 5, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 1, Japan 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 2, Lebanon 5, Liberia 5, Lithuania 1, Malta 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 2, Panama 7, Romania 4, Russia 67, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 15, South Korea 24, Syria 13, Thailand 1, Turkey 22, Ukraine 13, United Arab Emirates 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 2, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $112 million (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3% (FY01 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,990,790 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,673,713 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 162,643 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Nationality noun: Cambodian(s)

adjective: Cambodian
Natural hazards monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Natural resources timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 12,775,324

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (1997 est.)
Population growth rate 2.24% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)
Radios 1.34 million (1997)
Railways total: 603 km

narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge (2001 est.)
Religions Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone service

domestic: NA

international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 21,800 (mid-1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 80,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1999)
Terrain mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Total fertility rate 4.66 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.8% (1999 est.)
Waterways 3,700 km

note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m
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