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Cambodia (2003)

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Cambodia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.3% (male 2,606,568; female 2,557,736)

15-64 years: 57.6% (male 3,599,216; female 3,962,520)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 148,287; female 250,437) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, rubber, corn, vegetables
Airports 21 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 16

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 181,040 sq km

land: 176,520 sq km

water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Background Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off almost 20 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces in 1998.
Birth rate 27.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $396 million

expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $254 million (2001 est.)
Capital Phnom Penh
Climate tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 443 km
Constitution promulgated 21 September 1993
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form: Cambodia

local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea

local short form: Kampuchea

former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic
Currency riel (KHR)
Death rate 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $829 million (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY

embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh

mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546

telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438

FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG

chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742

FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Disputes - international completed boundary demarcation with Thailand; accuses Vietnam of moving and destroying boundary markers and encroachments, initiating border incidents; accuses Thailand of preventing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; maritime boundary with Vietnam hampered by dispute over offshore islands
Economic aid - recipient $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors
Economy - overview Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. Even given these stout growth estimates, the long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. The government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.
Electricity - consumption 110.6 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 119 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 65%

hydro: 35%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Environment - current issues illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Ethnic groups Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Exchange rates riels per US dollar - 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75 (2000), 3,807.83 (1999), 3,744.42 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 1993) and TOL LAH (since 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $1.38 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish
Exports - partners US 60.2%, Germany 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Singapore 4.4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band
GDP purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 40%

industry: 20%

services: 40% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 12,323 km

paved: 1,996 km

unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)
Illicit drugs narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $1.73 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles
Imports - partners Thailand 24.8%, Singapore 16.9%, China 12.1%, Hong Kong 10.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Vietnam 5.2% (2002)
Independence 9 November 1953 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 16% (2001 est.)
Industries tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 75.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 84.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 66.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 2,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Labor force 6 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,572 km

border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Land use arable land: 20.96%

permanent crops: 0.61%

other: 78.43% (1998 est.)
Languages Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Legal system primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years
Legislative branch bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies"; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2007); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held in 2004)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (2003)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.92 years

male: 55.49 years

female: 60.47 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 69.9%

male: 80.5%

female: 60.3% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 527 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,328,371 GRT/3,294,028 DWT

ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 412, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 4, container 17, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 11, Bulgaria 3, Cambodia 194, Canada 4, China 25, Cyprus 14, Egypt 10, Estonia 2, France 1, Georgia 1, Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Japan 2, Jordan 1, North Korea, 1, South Korea, 25, Latvia 3, Lebanon 6, Liberia 7, Malaysia 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 10, Romania 2, Russia 75, Saint Kitts and Nevis 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 17, Syria 20, Turkey 18, Ukraine 16, United Arab Emirates 3, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 3 (2002 est.)
Military branches Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $112 million (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3% (FY01 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,275,533 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,829,535 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 165,395 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Nationality noun: Cambodian(s)

adjective: Cambodian
Natural hazards monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Natural resources timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 13,124,764

note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (1997 est.)
Population growth rate 1.8% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)
Railways total: 602 km

narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Religions Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone service

domestic: NA

international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 21,800 (mid-1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 80,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2003)
Terrain mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Total fertility rate 3.58 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.8% (1999 est.)
Waterways 3,700 km

note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m
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