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Jordania (2008)

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Jordania 2008 roku

 Jordania
Podzial administracyjny 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 33% (male 1,018,934/female 977,645)


15-64 years: 63% (male 2,037,550/female 1,777,361)


65 years and over: 4% (male 117,279/female 124,424) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives; sheep, poultry, stone fruits, strawberries, dairy
Lotniska 17 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 2


under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Terytorium total: 92,300 sq km


land: 91,971 sq km


water: 329 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Indiena
Tlo historyczne Following Swiat War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the UK received a mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain separated out a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine w the early 1920s, and the area gained its independence w 1946; it adopted the name of Jordania w 1950. The country's long-time ruler was King HUSSEIN (1953-99). A pragmatic leader, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Izrael, and a large internal Palestinian population, despite several wars and coup attempts. In 1989 he reinstituted parliamentary elections and gradual political liberalization; w 1994 he signed a peace treaty z Izrael. King ABDALLAH II, the son of King HUSSEIN, assumed the throne following his father's death w luty 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and undertaken an aggressive economic reform program. Jordania acceded to the Swiat Trade Organization w 2000, and began to participate w the European Free Trade Association w 2001. Municipal elections were held w lipiec 2007 under a system w which 20% of seats w all municipal councils were reserved by quota dla women. Parliamentary elections were held w listopad 2007 and saw independent pro-government candidates win the vast majority of seats. In listopad 2007, King Abdallah instructed his new prime minister to focus on socioeconomic reform, developing a healthcare and housing network dla civilians and military personnel, and improving the educational system.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.999 billion


expenditures: $6.449 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Amman


geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Thursday w marzec; ends last Friday w wrzesien
Klimat mostly arid desert; rainy season w west (listopad to kwiecien)
Linia brzegowa 26 km
Konstytucja 1 styczen 1952; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordania


conventional short form: Jordania


local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah


local short form: Al Urdun


former: Transjordan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 2.68 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.483 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alan MISENHEIMER


embassy: Abdun, Amman


mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordania; Unit 70200, Box 5, APO AE 09892-0200


telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000


FAX: [962] (6) 592-0121
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador ZEID Ra'ad Zeid al-Hussein, Prince


chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664


FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak, z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania; 2004 Agreement settles border dispute z Syria pending demarcation
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $752 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Jordania is a small Arab country z insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources. Poverty, unemployment, and inflation are fundamental problems, but King ABDALLAH II, since assuming the throne w 1999, has undertaken some broad economic reforms w a long-term effort to improve living standards. Since Jordania's graduation from its most recent IMF program w 2002, Amman has continued to follow IMF guidelines, practicing careful monetary policy, making substantial headway z privatization, and opening the trade regime. Jordania's exports have significantly increased under the free trade accord z the US and Jordaniaian Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ), which allow Jordania to export goods duty free to the US. In 2006, Jordania reduced its debt-to-Produkt krajowy brutto ratio significantly. These measures have helped improve productivity and have made Jordania more attractive dla foreign investment. Before the US-led war w Irak, Jordania imported most of its oil from Irak. Since 2003, however, Jordania has been more dependent on oil from other Gulf nations. The government ended subsidies dla petroleum and other consumer goods w 2008 w an effort to control the budget. The main challenges facing Jordania are reducing dependence on foreign grants, reducing the budget deficit, attracting investments, and creating jobs.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.49 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 4 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 741 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 9.074 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m


highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Kurs waluty Jordaniaian dinars per US dollar - 0.709 (2007), 0.709 (2006), 0.709 (2005), 0.709 (2004), 0.709 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 luty 1999); Prince HUSSEIN (born 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II, is considered to be first w line to inherit the throne


head of government: Prime Minister Nader al-DAHABI (since 25 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Eksport 4 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $6.037 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary clothing, pharmaceuticals, potash, phosphates, fertilizers, vegetables, manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 25.2%, Irak 16.9%, Indie 8%, Arabia Saudyjska 5.8%, Syria 4.7% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith w One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of Swiat War I
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.7%


industry: 10.5%


services: 85.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 31 00 N, 36 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border z Izrael and the occupied Zachodni Brzeg
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.7%


highest 10%: 30.6% (2003)
Import 741 million kWh (2005)
Import $11.08 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 1.228 billion cu m (2005)
Import 106,400 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary crude oil, textile fabrics, machinery, transport equipment, manufactured goods
Import - partnerzy Arabia Saudyjska 23.2%, Niemcy 8.3%, Chiny 8%, US 5.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 25 maj 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.7% (2007 est.)
Przemysl clothing, phosphate mining, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 19.33 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 12.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 750 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
Sila robocza 1.563 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 5%


industry: 12.5%


services: 82.5% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 1,635 km


border countries: Irak 181 km, Izrael 238 km, Arabia Saudyjska 744 km, Syria 375 km, Zachodni Brzeg 97 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 3.32%


permanent crops: 1.18%


other: 95.5% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
System prawny based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts w a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, also called the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (55 seats; members appointed by the monarch from designated categories of public figures to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies, also called the House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (110 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms; note - six seats are reserved dla women and are allocated by a special electoral panel if no women are elected)


elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held 20 listopad 2007 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - IAF 5.5 %, independents and other 94.5%; seats by party - IAF 6, independents and other 104; note - seven women will serve w the next Assembly - six of whom filled women's quota seats and one was directly elected
Zywotnosc total population: 78.55 years


male: 76.04 years


female: 81.22 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 89.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 84.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, northwest of Arabia Saudyjska
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 3 nm
Flota handlowa total: 30 ships (1000 GRT or over) 410,472 GRT/564,643 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 11, container 3, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 4


foreign-owned: 15 (UAE 15)


registered w other countries: 15 (Bahamas 2, Panama 11, Syria 2) (2007)
Wojsko Jordaniaian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordaniaian Land Force, Royal Jordaniaian Navy, Royal Jordaniaian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya), Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but comes under JAF w wartime or crisis situations) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 8.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 25 maj (1946)
Narodowosc noun: Jordaniaian(s)


adjective: Jordaniaian
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; periodic earthquakes
Surowce naturalne phosphates, potash, shale oil
Wspolczynnik migracji 6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 426 km; oil 49 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy al-Ahd Party; Arab Islamic Democratic Movement [Yusuf ABU BAKR]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Ayishah Salih HIJAZAYN]; Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysir al-HIMSI]; Ba'th Arab Progressive Party [Fu'ad DABBUR]; Freedom Party; Future Party; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Zaki Sa'ed BANI IRSHEID]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FAURI]; Jordaniaian Arab Ansar Party; Jordaniaian Arab New Dawn Party; Jordaniaian Arab Party; Jordaniaian Citizens' Rights Movement; Jordaniaian Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH]; Jordaniaian Communist Workers Party; Jordaniaian Democratic Left Party [Musa MA'AYTEH]; Jordaniaian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id Dhiyab Ali MUSTAFA]; Jordaniaian Generations Party [Muhammad KHALAYLEH]; Jordaniaian Green Party [Muhammad BATAYNEH]; Jordaniaian Labor Party [Dr. Mazin Sulayman Jiryis HANNA]; Jordaniaian Peace Party; Jordaniaian People's Committees Movement; Jordaniaian People's Democratic Party (Hashd) [Ahmad YUSUF]; Jordaniaian Rafah Party; Jordaniaian Renaissance Party; Mission Party; Nation Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH]; National Action Party (Haqq) [Tariq al-KAYYALI]; National Konstytucjaal Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI]; National Popular Democratic Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI]; Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordania Bar Association [Hussein Mujalli, chairman]; Jordaniaian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Salem AL-FALAHAT, controller general]
Ludnosc 6,053,193 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 14.2% (2002)
Przyrost naturalny 2.412% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe FM 31 (2007)
Linie kolejowe total: 505 km


narrow gauge: 505 km 1.050-m gauge (2006)
Religie Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.042 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.146 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.943 male(s)/female


total population: 1.102 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: service has improved recently z increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage w both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; internet penetration remains modest and slow-growing


domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; w 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; mobile-cellular usage is increasing rapidly and teledensity is approaching 75 per 100 persons


international: country code - 962; landing point dla the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Arabia Saudyjska and microwave radio relay link z Egipt and Syria; participant w Medarabtel
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 614,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 4.343 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 22 (2007)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly desert plateau w east, highland area w west; Great Rift Valley separates East and Zachodni Brzegs of the Jordania River
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.55 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 13.5% official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30% (2007 est.)
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