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Jordan (2004)

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Jordan 2004 year

Administrative divisions 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
Age structure 0-14 years: 35.2% (male 1,009,604; female 967,645)

15-64 years: 61.1% (male 1,829,984; female 1,598,141)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 100,896; female 104,932) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry
Airports 17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 92,300 sq km

land: 91,971 sq km

water: 329 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background For most of its history since independence from British administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King HUSSEIN (1953-99). A pragmatic ruler, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population, despite several wars and coup attempts. In 1989 he reinstituted parliamentary elections and gradual political liberalization; in 1994 he signed a formal peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II - the eldest son of King HUSSEIN and Princess MUNA - assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and undertaken an aggressive economic reform program. Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2000, and began to participate in the European Free Trade Association in 2001. After a two-year delay, parliamentary and municipal elections took place in the summer of 2003. The Prime Minister and government appointed in October 2004 declared their commitment to accelerated economic and political reforms and the new cabinet includes an unprecedented four women as ministers.
Birth rate 22.73 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.397 billion

expenditures: $3.587 billion, including capital expenditures of $582 million (2003 est.)
Capital 'Amman
Climate mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Coastline 26 km
Constitution 8 January 1952
Country name conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan
Currency Jordanian dinar (JOD)
Death rate 2.62 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $7.683 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David M. HALE

embassy: Abdoun, Amman

mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, APO AE 09892-0200

telephone: [962] (6) 592-0101

FAX: [962] (6) 592-4102
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Karim Tawfiq KAWAR

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Disputes - international border dispute settled with Syria in 2004
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $553 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil. Debt, poverty, and unemployment are fundamental problems, but King ABDALLAH, since assuming the throne in 1999, has undertaken some broad economic reforms in a long-term effort to improve living standards. 'Amman in the past three years has worked closely with the IMF, practiced careful monetary policy, and made substantial headway with privatization. The government also has liberalized the trade regime sufficiently to secure Jordan's membership in the WTrO (2000), a free trade accord with the US (2000), and an association agreement with the EU (2001). These measures have helped improve productivity and have put Jordan on the foreign investment map. The US-led war in Iraq in 2003 dealt an economic blow to Jordan, which was dependent on Iraq for discounted oil (worth $300-$600 million a year). Several Gulf nations have provided temporary aid to compensate for the loss of this oil; when this foreign aid expires, the Jordanian government has pledged to raise retail petroleum product prices and the sales tax base. Other ongoing challenges include fiscal adjustment to reduce the budget deficit, broader investment incentives to promote job-creating ventures, and the encouragement of tourism.
Electricity - consumption 6.86 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 2 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 267 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 7.091 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Exchange rates Jordanian dinars per US dollar - 0.709 (2003), 0.709 (2002), 0.709 (2001), 0.709 (2000), 0.709 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Prince HUSSEIN (born 1994), son of King ABDALLAH, is first in line to inherit the throne

head of government: Prime Minister Faisal al-FAYEZ (since 25 October 2003)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 2 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.908 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities clothing, phosphates, fertilizers, potash, vegetables, manufactures, pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners US 21.5%, Iraq 17.6%, Switzerland 6.5%, India 6.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.3% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I
GDP purchasing power parity - $23.64 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 29%

services: 67.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.1% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 31 00 N, 36 00 E
Geography - note strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 7,245 km

paved: 7,245 km

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1997)
Imports 267 million kWh (2001)
Imports $4.946 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities crude oil, textile fabrics, machinery, transport equipment, manufactured goods
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 11.3%, China 7.9%, Germany 7.9%, US 6.8%, Iraq 6.5% (2003)
Independence 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Industrial production growth rate 3.5% (2003 est.)
Industries phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 18.11 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.4% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
Labor force 1.36 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 5%, industry 12.5%, services 82.5% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,635 km

border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km
Land use arable land: 2.67%

permanent crops: 1.83%

other: 95.5% (2001)
Languages Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Legal system based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, also called the House of Notables (Majlis al-Ayan) (55 seats; members appointed by the monarch from designated categories of public figures; members serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives, also called the House of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab) (110 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms; note - six seats are reserved for women and are allocated by a special electoral panel if no women are elected)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 17 June 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - independents and others 89.6%, Islamic Action Front 10.4%; seats by party - independents and others 92, Islamic Action Front 18; note - one of the six quota seats was given to a female IAF candidate

note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the monarch several times since 1974; in November 1989, the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held; political parties were not legalized until 1992; King ABDALLAH delayed the 2001 elections until 2003
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.06 years

male: 75.59 years

female: 80.69 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.3%

male: 95.9%

female: 86.3% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm
Merchant marine total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 78,814 GRT/92,695 DWT

by type: cargo 2, container 1, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea/passenger 1

foreign-owned: Greece 6

registered in other countries: 11 (2004 est.)
Military branches Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) (Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, Royal Jordanian Air Force, and Special Operations Command or SOCOM); note - Public Security Directorate normally falls under Ministry of Interior but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis situations
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2,043.2 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 20.2% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,636,537 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,153,385 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 59,471 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Nationality noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian
Natural hazards droughts; periodic earthquakes
Natural resources phosphates, potash, shale oil
Net migration rate 6.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 10 km; oil 743 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Al-Ahed Party [Khaldoun al-NASSER, secretary general]; Al-Ajyal [Muhammad KHALAYLEH, secretary general]; Ba'th Arab Progressive Party [Mahmood MA'AYTEH, secretary general]; Al-Umma (Nation) Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH, secretary general]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Muhammad al-'ORAN, secretary general]; Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH, secretary general]; Constitutional Front [Mahdi al-TALL, secretary general]; Democratic Arab Islamic Movement [Yusuf ABU BAKR, president]; Green Party [Muhammad BATAYNEH, secretary general]; Jordanian Democratic Left Party [Musa MA'AYTEH, secretary] general; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id Dhiyab Ali MUSTAFA, secretary general]; Jordanian Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI, secretary general]; Jordanian People's Democratic (Hashd) Party [Salim al-NAHHAS, secretary general]; Islamic Action Front [Hazma MANSOUR, secretary general]; Muslim Centrist Party [NA leader]; National Action (Haqq) Party [Muhammad al-ZUBI, secretary general]; National Constitutional Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general]; (Arab) Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysir al-HIMSI, secretary general]; Pan-Arab (Democratic) Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI, secretary general]
Political pressure groups and leaders Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordanian Bar Association [Saleh ARMOUTI, president]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT, secretary general]
Population 5,611,202 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.67% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Al 'Aqabah
Radio broadcast stations AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)
Railways total: 505 km

narrow gauge: 505 km 1.050-m gauge (2003)
Religions Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public

domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available

international: country code - 962; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000
Telephones - main lines in use 622,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,325,300 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 20 (plus 96 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Total fertility rate 2.86 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% official rate; actual rate is 25%-30% (2001 est.)
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