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Jordan (2002)

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Jordan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
Age structure 0-14 years: 36.6% (male 991,370; female 949,247)

15-64 years: 60% (male 1,698,568; female 1,485,261)

65 years and over: 3.4% (male 90,186; female 92,838) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry
Airports 18 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 92,300 sq km

land: 91,971 sq km

water: 329 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background For most of its history since independence from British administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King HUSSEIN (1953-99). A pragmatic ruler, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population, through several wars and coup attempts. In 1989 he resumed parliamentary elections and gradually permitted political liberalization; in 1994 a formal peace treaty was signed with Israel. King ABDALLAH II - the eldest son of King HUSSEIN and Princess MUNA - assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and established his domestic priorities, including an aggressive economic reform program. Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization in January 2000, and signed free trade agreements with the United States in 2000, and with the European Free Trade Association in 2001.
Birth rate 24.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.9 billion

expenditures: $3.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Amman
Climate mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Coastline 26 km
Constitution 8 January 1952
Country name conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan
Currency Jordanian dinar (JOD)
Death rate 2.62 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $8.2 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Edward William GNEHM, Jr.

embassy: Abdoun, Amman

mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, APO AE 09892-0200

telephone: [962] (6) 5920101

FAX: [962] (6) 5920121
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Karim Tawfiq KAWAR

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $600 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil. Debt, poverty, and unemployment are fundamental problems, but King ABDALLAH since assuming the throne in 1999 has undertaken some broad economic reforms in a long-term effort to improve living standards. Amman in the past three years has worked closely with the IMF, practiced careful monetary policy, and made significant headway with privatization. The government also has liberalized the trade regime sufficiently to secure Jordan's membership in the WTrO (2000), an association agreement with the EU (2000), and a free trade accord with US (2000). These measures have helped improve productivity and have put Jordan on the foreign investment map. The substantial trade deficit is covered by tourism receipts, worker remittances, and foreign assistance. Ongoing challenges include fiscal adjustment to reduce the budget deficit and broader investment incentives to promote job-creating ventures.
Electricity - consumption 7.092 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 650 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 6.932 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99%

hydro: 1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Exchange rates Jordanian dinars per US dollar - 0.7090 (1996-present )

note: since May 1989, the Jordanian dinar has been pegged to a group of currencies
Executive branch chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HAMZAH (half brother of the monarch, born 29 March 1980)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali Abul RAGHEB (since 19 June 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures, pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners India 11.4%, US 9.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, Israel 3.7% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top, the Abbassid Caliphate of Islam), white (the Ummayyad Caliphate of Islam), and green (the Fatimid Caliphate of Islam) with a red isosceles triangle (representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916) based on the hoist side bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations
GDP purchasing power parity - $22.8 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4%

industry: 26%

services: 70% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 31 00 N, 36 00 E
Geography - note strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 8,000 km

paved: 8,000 km

unpaved: 0 km (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 30% (1997) (1997)
Imports 650 million kWh (2000)
Imports $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured goods
Imports - partners Germany 8.8%, US 7.8%, Italy 5.6%, France 5.5% (2001)
Independence 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Industrial production growth rate -1.1% (2002 est.)
Industries phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, tourism
Infant mortality rate 19.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2000)
Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
Labor force 1.26 million

note: in addition, at least 300,000 workers are employed abroad (2001)
Labor force - by occupation services 83%, industry 13%, agriculture 5% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,635 km

border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km
Land use arable land: 2.87%

permanent crops: 1.52%

other: 95.61% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Legal system based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, also called the House of Notables (Majlis al-Aayan), a 40-member body appointed by the monarch from designated categories of public figures; members serve four-year terms and the House of Representatives, also called the House of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab), an 80-member body elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms

elections: House of Representatives - last held 4 November 1997 (November 2001 election postponed, next scheduled to be held in June 2003)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - National Constitutional Party 2, Arab Land Party 1, independents 75, other 2

note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the monarch several times since 1974; in November 1989, the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.71 years

male: 75.26 years

female: 80.3 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.6%

male: 93.4%

female: 79.4% (1995 est.)
Location Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 NM
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,206 GRT/53,401 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, container 1, roll on/roll off 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 6 (2002 est.)
Military branches Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, Royal Jordanian Air Force, and Special Operations Command or Socom); note - Public Security Directorate normally falls under Ministry of Interior but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis situations
Military expenditures - dollar figure $757.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 8.6% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,517,751 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,073,991 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 57,131 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Nationality noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian
Natural hazards droughts; periodic earthquakes
Natural resources phosphates, potash, shale oil
Net migration rate 6.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 209 km; note - may not be in use
Political parties and leaders Al-Umma (Nation) Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH, secretary general]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Muhammad al-'ORAN, secretary general]; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DHIYAB, secretary general]; National Constitutional Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general]; Islamic Action Front [Abd al latif al-ARABIYAT, secretary general]; National Action (Haqq) Party [Muhammad al-ZUBI, secretary general]; (Arab) Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysif al-HIMSI, secretary general]; Jordanian People's Democratic (Hashd) Party [Salim al-NAHHAS, secretary general]; Pan-Arab (Democratic) Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI, secretary general]; Constitutional Front [Mahdi al-TALL, secretary general]; Jordanian Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI, secretary general]; Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH, secretary general]
Political pressure groups and leaders Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT, secretary general]; Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordanian Bar Association [Saleh ARMOUTI, president]
Population 5,307,470 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.89% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Al 'Aqabah
Radio broadcast stations AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)
Radios 1.66 million (1997)
Railways total: 677 km

narrow gauge: 677 km 1.050-m gauge (2001)
Religions Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: service has improved recently with the increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public

domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000
Telephones - main lines in use 403,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 11,500 (1995)
Television broadcast stations 20 (plus 96 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Total fertility rate 3.15 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% official rate; actual rate is 25%-30% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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