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Japonia (2008)

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Japonia 2008 roku

 Japonia
Podzial administracyjny 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gunma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 13.8% (male 9,024,344/female 8,553,700)


15-64 years: 65.2% (male 41,841,760/female 41,253,968)


65 years and over: 21% (male 11,312,492/female 15,447,230) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish
Lotniska 176 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 145


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 41


1,524 to 2,437 m: 40


914 to 1,523 m: 28


under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 27 (2007)
Terytorium total: 377,835 sq km


land: 374,744 sq km


water: 3,091 sq km


note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than California
Tlo historyczne In 1603, a Tokugawa shogunate (military dictatorship) ushered w a long period of isolation from foreign influence w order to secure its power. For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japonia to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa z the US w 1854, Japonia opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japonia became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both Chiny and Rosja. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Tajwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japonia occupied Manchuria, and w 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of Chiny. Japonia attacked US forces w 1941 - triggering America's entry into Swiat War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat w Swiat War II, Japonia recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, elected politicians - z heavy input from bureaucrats and business executives - wield actual decisionmaking power. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting w the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth, but Japonia still remains a major economic power, both w Asia and globally.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.1 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.463 trillion


expenditures: $1.575 trillion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tokyo


geographic coordinates: 35 41 N, 139 45 E


time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from tropical w south to cool temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 29,751 km
Konstytucja 3 maj 1947
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Japonia


local long form: Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku


local short form: Nihon/Nippon
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.98 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.492 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER


embassy: 1-10-5 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420


mailing address: APO AP 96337-5004


telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000


FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862


consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo


consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ryozo KATO


chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187


consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Agana (Guam), Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, Seattle
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Japonia and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; Chiny and Tajwan dispute both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $7.5 billion (2007)
Ekonomia Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of Produkt krajowy brutto) helped Japonia advance z extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most technologically powerful economy w the world after the US and the third-largest economy w the world after the US and Chiny, measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. One notable characteristic of the economy has been how manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors have worked together w closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment dla a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features have now eroded. Japonia's industrial sector is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The tiny agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, z crop yields among the highest w the world. Usually self sufficient w rice, Japonia must import about 55% of its food on a caloric basis. Japonia maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts dla nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades, overall real economic growth had been spectacular - a 10% average w the 1960s, a 5% average w the 1970s, and a 4% average w the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly w the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the after effects of overinvestment and an asset price bubble during the late 1980s that required a protracted period of time dla firms to reduce excess debt, capital, and labor. From 2000 to 2001, government efforts to revive economic growth proved short lived and were hampered by the slowing of the US, European, and Asian economies. In 2002-07, growth improved and the lingering fears of deflation w prices and economic activity lessened, leading the central bank to raise interest rates to 0.25% w lipiec 2006, up from the near 0% rate of the six years prior, and to 0.50% w luty 2007. In addition, the ten-year privatization of Japonia Post, which has functioned not only as the national postal delivery system but also, through its banking and insurance facilities as Japonia's largest financial institution, was completed w pazdziernik 2007, marking a major milestone w the process of structural reform. Nevertheless, Japonia's huge government debt, which totals 182% of Produkt krajowy brutto, and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. Some fear that a rise w taxes could endanger the current economic recovery. Debate also continues on the role of and effects of reform w restructuring the economy, particularly z respect to increasing income disparities.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 974.2 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.025 trillion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m


highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from power plant emissions results w acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japonia is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources w Asia and elsewhere
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Grupy etniczne Japoniaese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.7%


note: up to 230,000 Brazyliaians of Japoniaese origin migrated to Japonia w the 1990s to work w industries; some have returned to Brazylia (2004)
Kurs waluty yen per US dollar - 117.99 (2007), 116.18 (2006), 110.22 (2005), 108.19 (2004), 115.93 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 styczen 1989)


head of government: Prime Minister Yasuo FUKUDA (since 26 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: Diet designates prime minister; constitution requires that prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition w House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; monarch is hereditary


election results: FUKUDA elected prime minister z 338 of 477 votes cast w the House of Representatives; he received 106 of 240 votes cast w the House of Councillors; vote of House of Representatives prevailed
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $665.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 94,830 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary transport equipment, motor vehicles, semiconductors, electrical machinery, chemicals
Eksport - partnerzy US 22.8%, Chiny 14.3%, South Korea 7.8%, Tajwan 6.8%, Hong Kong 5.6% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi white z a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1.5%


industry: 25.2%


services: 73.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 36 00 N, 138 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location w northeast Asia
Ladowiska helikopterow 14 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4.8%


highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $571.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 77.6 billion cu m (2005)
Import 5.425 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, raw materials
Import - partnerzy Chiny 20.5%, US 12%, Arabia Saudyjska 6.4%, UAE 5.5%, Australia 4.8%, South Korea 4.7%, Indonezja 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 660 B.C. (traditional founding by Emperor JIMMU)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.3% (2007 est.)
Przemysl among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 3 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 0% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA, MIGA, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 25,920 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
Sila robocza 66.07 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 4.6%


industry: 27.8%


services: 67.7% (2004)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 11.64%


permanent crops: 0.9%


other: 87.46% (2005)
Jezyki Japoniaese
System prawny modeled after German civil law system z English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (242 seats - members elected dla six-year terms; half reelected every three years; 146 members w multi-seat constituencies and 96 by proportional representation) and the House of Representatives or Shugi-in (480 seats - members elected dla four-year terms; 300 w single-seat constituencies; 180 members by proportional representation w 11 regional blocs)


elections: House of Councillors - last held 29 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w lipiec 2010); House of Representatives - last held 11 wrzesien 2005 (next election by wrzesien 2009)


election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DPJ 109, LDP 83, Komeito 20, JCP 7, SDP 5, others 18

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party (in single-seat constituencies) - LDP 47.8%, DPJ 36.4%, others 15.8%; seats by party - LDP 296, DPJ 113, Komeito 31, JCP 9, SDP 7, others 24 (2007)
Zywotnosc total population: 82.02 years


male: 78.67 years


female: 85.56 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2002)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Ocean Spokojny and the Sea of Japonia, east of the Korean Peninsula
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm w the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 676 ships (1000 GRT or over) 10,386,894 GRT/11,689,142 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 131, cargo 29, carrier 3, chemical tanker 23, container 10, liquefied gas 58, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 142, petroleum tanker 157, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 52, vehicle carrier 55


registered w other countries: 2,692 (Bahamas 62, Belize 2, Bermudy 1, Birma 3, Kambodza 3, Kajmany 6, Chiny 2, Cypr 19, Francja 5, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 78, Indonezja 5, Wyspa Man 4, South Korea 1, Liberia 111, Malezja 4, Malta 3, Wyspy Marshalla 5, Mongolia 1, Norwegia 1, Panama 2,151, Filipiny 69, Portugalia 10, Singapur 108, Szwecja 1, Tajlandia 4, UK 1, Vanuatu 28, unknown 2) (2007)
Wojsko Japoniaese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jietai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jietai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koku Jieitai, ASDF) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 grudzien (1933)
Narodowosc noun: Japoniaese (singular and plural)


adjective: Japoniaese
Naturalne zagrozenia many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
Surowce naturalne negligible mineral resources, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 3,939 km; oil 170 km; oil/gas/water 104 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Party of Japonia or DPJ [Ichiro OZAWA]; Japonia Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]; Komeito [Akihiro OTA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Yasuo FUKUDA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 127,433,494 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny -0.088% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 215 (plus 370 repeaters), FM 89 (plus 485 repeaters), shortwave 21 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 23,474 km


standard gauge: 3,204 km 1.435-m gauge (3,204 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 77 km 1.372-m gauge (77 km electrified); 20,182 km 1.067-m gauge (13,334 km electrified); 11 km 0.762-m gauge (11 km electrified) (2006)
Religie observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.055 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.014 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.732 male(s)/female


total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 20 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind


international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 55.155 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 101.7 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 211 (plus 7,341 repeaters); w addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged and mountainous
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas) (2007)
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