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Japan (2003)

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Japan 2003 year

Administrative divisions 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.4% (male 9,368,132; female 8,906,024)

15-64 years: 67% (male 42,852,204; female 42,368,109)

65 years and over: 18.6% (male 9,945,638; female 13,774,392) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish
Airports 172 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 141

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 38

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 32 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

over 3047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 26 (2002)
Area total: 377,835 sq km

land: 374,744 sq km

water: 3,091 sq km

note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
Area - comparative slightly smaller than California
Background While retaining its time-honored culture, Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth.
Birth rate 9.61 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $441 billion

expenditures: $718 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $0 NA (FY 01/02 est.)
Capital Tokyo
Climate varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Coastline 29,751 km
Constitution 3 May 1947
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Japan
Currency yen (JPY)
Death rate 8.55 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Howard H. BAKER, Jr.

embassy: 10-5 Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420

mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 258, APO AP 96337-5004

telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000

FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862

consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo

consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ryozo KATO

chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187

consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Hagatna (Guam), Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle

consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
Disputes - international islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) disputed with South Korea; Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan
Economic aid - donor ODA, $9.1 billion (1999)
Economy - overview Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second-most-technologically-powerful economy in the world after the US and third-largest economy after the US and China. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth have met with little success and were further hampered in 2000-2003 by the slowing of the US, European, and Asian economies. Japan's huge government debt, which is approaching 150% of GDP, and the ageing of the population are two major long-run problems. Robotics constitutes a key long-term economic strength with Japan possessing 410,000 of the world's 720,000 "working robots." Internal conflict over the proper way to reform the ailing banking system continues.
Electricity - consumption 964.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 1.037 trillion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 60%

hydro: 8.4%

nuclear: 29.8%

other: 1.8% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m

highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Ethnic groups Japanese 99%, others 1% (Korean 511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazilian 182,232, Filipino 89,851, other 237,914) (2000)
Exchange rates yen per US dollar - 125.39 (2002), 121.53 (2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 26 April 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the Diet designates the prime minister; the constitution requires that the prime minister must command a parliamentary majority; therefore, following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister

note: following the resignation of Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI, Junichiro KOIZUMI was elected as the new president of the majority Liberal Democratic Party and soon thereafter designated by the Diet to become the next prime minister
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $383.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 93,360 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities motor vehicles, semiconductors, office machinery, chemicals
Exports - partners US 28.8%, China 9.6%, South Korea 6.9%, Taiwan 6.2%, Hong Kong 6.1% (2002)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $3.651 trillion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.4%

industry: 30.9%

services: 67.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 36 00 N, 138 00 E
Geography - note strategic location in northeast Asia
Heliports 15 (2002)
Highways total: 1,161,894 km

paved: 534,471 km (including 6,455 km of expressways)

unpaved: 627,423 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.8%

highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $292.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 77.73 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 5.449 million bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, raw materials (2001)
Imports - partners China 18.3%, US 17.4%, South Korea 4.6%, Indonesia 4.2%, Australia 4.1% (2002)
Independence 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
Industrial production growth rate -1.4% (2002 est.)
Industries among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods
Infant mortality rate total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.9% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISET, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 73 (2000)
Irrigated land 26,790 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
Labor force 67.7 million (December 2001)
Labor force - by occupation services 70%, industry 25%, agriculture 5% (2002 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 12.13%

permanent crops: 1.01%

other: 86.86% (1998 est.)
Languages Japanese
Legal system modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (247 seats - members elected for six-year terms; half reelected every three years; 149 members in multi-seat constituencies and 98 by proportional representation); House of Representatives or Shugi-in (480 seats - members elected for four-year terms; 300 in single-seat constituencies; 180 members by proportional representation in 11 regional blocs)

elections: House of Councillors - last held 29 July 2001 (next to be held in July 2004); House of Representatives - last held 9 November 2003 (next election has not been scheduled)

election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDP 110, DPJ 59, Komeito 23, JCP 20, SDP 8, Liberal Party 8, Conservative Party 5, independents 14; distribution of seats as of July 2001 was: LDP 115, DPJ 60, Komeito 24, JCP 20, SDP 8, Liberal Party 8 (merged with DPJ in 2003), independents 6, others 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - LDP 49.38%, DPJ 36.88%, Komeito 7.09%, JCP 1.88%, SDP 1.25%, NCP .84%; seats by party - LDP 237, DPJ 177, Komeito 34, JCP 9, SDP 6, NCP 4, others 13; distribution of seats as of 13 November 2003 was: LDP 244, DPJ 177, Komeito 34, JCP 9, SDP 6, others 10
Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.93 years

male: 77.63 years

female: 84.41 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1995 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
Map references Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM; between 3 NM and 12 NM in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait
Merchant marine total: 594 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 10,467,142 GRT/13,335,833 DWT

ships by type: bulk 120, cargo 45, chemical tanker 18, combination bulk 28, combination ore/oil 1, container 18, liquefied gas 52, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 179, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 59, short-sea passenger 6, vehicle carrier 49

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: China 1, Panama 1, Singapore 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $39.52 billion (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 29,392,559 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 25,405,779 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 725,281 (2003 est.)
National holiday Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933)
Nationality noun: Japanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Japanese
Natural hazards many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
Natural resources negligible mineral resources, fish
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,719 km; oil 170 km; oil/gas/water 60 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Naoto KAN, leader; Katsuya OKADA, secretary general]; Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII, chairman; Tadayoshi ICHIDA, secretary general]; Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president; Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Junichiro KOIZUMI, president; Shinzo ABE, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA, chairperson; Seiji MATAICHI, secretary general]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 127,214,499 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.11% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai
Radio broadcast stations AM 215 plus 370 repeaters, FM 89 plus 485 repeaters, shortwave 21 (2001)
Railways total: 23,168 km (15,995 km electrified)

standard gauge: 3,204 km 1.435-m gauge (3,204 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 77 km 1.372-m gauge (77 km electrified); 19,855 km 1.067-m gauge (12,683 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (31 km electrified) (2002)
Religions observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international service

domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam) (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 60.381 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 63.88 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations 211 plus 7,341 repeaters

note: in addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)
Terrain mostly rugged and mountainous
Total fertility rate 1.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.4% (2002)
Waterways 1,770 km approximately

note: seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
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