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Japan (2004)

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Japan 2004 year

Administrative divisions 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.3% (male 9,337,867; female 8,876,996)

15-64 years: 66.7% (male 42,697,264; female 42,196,835)

65 years and over: 19% (male 10,169,190; female 14,054,850) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish
Airports 174 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 143

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 39

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 32 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

over 3047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 26 (2004 est.)
Area total: 377,835 sq km

land: 374,744 sq km

water: 3,091 sq km

note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
Area - comparative slightly smaller than California
Background In 1603, a Tokugawa shogunate (military dictatorship) ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign influence in order to secure its power. For 250 years this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the United States in 1854, Japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1933 Japan occupied Manchuria and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth, but Japan still remains a major economic power, both in Asia and globally. In 2005, Japan began a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Birth rate 9.56 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.327 trillion

expenditures: $1.646 trillion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $71 billion (2003 est.)
Capital Tokyo
Climate varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Coastline 29,751 km
Constitution 3 May 1947
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Japan
Currency yen (JPY)
Death rate 8.75 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external NA (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Howard H. BAKER, Jr.

embassy: 10-5 Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420

mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 258, APO AP 96337-5004

telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000

FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862

consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo

consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ryozo KATO

chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187

consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Hagatna (Guam), Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle

consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
Disputes - international The sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands", occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; intensified media coverage and protests highlight dispute over the fishing-rich Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima) also claimed by South Korea; China and Taiwan have intensified their claims to the Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) administered by Japan
Economic aid - donor ODA, $7 billion (FY03/04)
Economy - overview Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most technologically-powerful economy in the world after the US and third-largest economy after the US and China. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the after effects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth have met with little success and were further hampered in 2000-2003 by the slowing of the US, European, and Asian economies. Japan's huge government debt, which totals more than 150% of GDP, and the ageing of the population are two major long-run problems. Robotics constitutes a key long-term economic strength with Japan possessing 410,000 of the world's 720,000 "working robots." Internal conflict over the proper way to reform the ailing banking system continues.
Electricity - consumption 964.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 1.037 trillion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m

highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Ethnic groups Japanese 99%, others 1% (Korean 511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazilian 182,232, Filipino 89,851, other 237,914)

note: up to 230,000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries; some have returned to Brazil (2004)
Exchange rates yen per US dollar - 115.933 (2003), 125.388 (2002), 121.529 (2001), 107.765 (2000), 113.907 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 26 April 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: Diet designates prime minister; constitution requires that prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition in House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $447.1 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 93,360 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities motor vehicles, semiconductors, office machinery, chemicals
Exports - partners US 24.8%, China 12.1%, South Korea 7.3%, Taiwan 6.6%, Hong Kong 6.3% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $3.582 trillion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.3%

industry: 25.4%

services: 73.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.7% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 36 00 N, 138 00 E
Geography - note strategic location in northeast Asia
Heliports 15 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 1,161,894 km

paved: 534,471 km (including 6,455 km of expressways)

unpaved: 627,423 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.8%

highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $346.6 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 77.73 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 5.449 million bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, raw materials (2001)
Imports - partners China 19.7%, US 15.6%, South Korea 4.7%, Indonesia 4.3% (2003)
Independence 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
Industrial production growth rate 3.3% (2003 est.)
Industries among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
Infant mortality rate total: 3.28 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.54 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.3% (2003 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EBRD, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 26,790 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
Labor force 66.66 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 5%, industry 25%, services 70% (2002 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 12.19%

permanent crops: 0.96%

other: 86.85% (2001)
Languages Japanese
Legal system modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (242 seats - members elected for six-year terms; half reelected every three years; 144 members in multi-seat constituencies and 98 by proportional representation); House of Representatives or Shugi-in (480 seats - members elected for four-year terms; 300 in single-seat constituencies; 180 members by proportional representation in 11 regional blocs)

elections: House of Councillors - last held 11 July 2004 (next to be held in July 2007); House of Representatives - last held 9 November 2003 (next election by November 2007)

election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDP 115, DPJ 82, Komeito 24, JCP 9, SDP 5, others 7; distribution of seats as of October 2004 - LDP 114, DPJ 84, Komeito 24, JCP 9, SDP 5, others 6

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - LDP 49.38%, DPJ 36.88%, Komeito 7.09%, JCP 1.88%, SDP 1.25%, NCP .84%; seats by party - LDP 237, DPJ 177, Komeito 34, JCP 9, SDP 6, NCP 4, others 13; distribution of seats as of December 2004: LDP 249, DPJ 177, Komeito 34, JCP 9, SDP 6, others 3, vacant 2

note: Liberal Party merged with Democratic Party of Japan in September 2003; Conservative New Party merged with Liberal Democratic Party following election in November 2003 (2004)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 81.04 years

male: 77.74 years

female: 84.51 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2002)
Location Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
Map references Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 568 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 10,149,196 GRT/12,680,544 DWT

by type: bulk 113, cargo 39, chemical tanker 18, combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 1, container 14, liquefied gas 53, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 170, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 58, short-sea/passenger 7, vehicle carrier 49

foreign-owned: China 1, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 1

registered in other countries: 1,989 (2004 est.)
Military branches Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $42,488.1 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 29,179,095 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 25,189,438 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 700,931 (2004 est.)
National holiday Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933)
Nationality noun: Japanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Japanese
Natural hazards many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
Natural resources negligible mineral resources, fish
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,719 km; oil 170 km; oil/gas/water 60 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Katsuya OKADA, leader; Tatsuo KAWABATA, secretary general]; Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII, chairman; Tadayoshi ICHIDA, secretary general]; Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president; Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Junichiro KOIZUMI, president; Tsutomu TAKEBE, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA, chairperson; Seiji MATAICHI, secretary general]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 127,333,002 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.08% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai
Radio broadcast stations AM 215 plus 370 repeaters, FM 89 plus 485 repeaters, shortwave 21 (2001)
Railways total: 23,705 km (16,519 km electrified)

standard gauge: 3,204 km 1.435-m gauge (3,204 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 77 km 1.372-m gauge (77 km electrified); 20,393 km 1.067-m gauge (13,227 km electrified); 11 km 0.762-m gauge (11 km electrified) (2003)
Religions observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international service

domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind

international: country code - 81; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam) (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 71.149 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 86,658,600 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 211 plus 7,341 repeaters

note: in addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)
Terrain mostly rugged and mountainous
Total fertility rate 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.3% (2003)
Waterways 1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas) (2004)
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