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Japonia (2002)

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Japonia 2002 roku

 Japonia
Podzial administracyjny 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.5% (male 9,465,282; female 8,999,888)


15-64 years: 67.5% (male 43,027,320; female 42,586,112)


65 years and over: 18% (male 9,664,112; female 13,231,914) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish
Lotniska 173 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 141


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 37


1,524 to 2,437 m: 38


914 to 1,523 m: 27


under 914 m: 32 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31 31


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 1


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 1 27 (2002)
Terytorium total: 377,835 sq km


land: 374,744 sq km


water: 3,091 sq km


note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than California
Tlo historyczne While retaining its time-honored culture, Japonia rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat w Swiat War II, Japonia recovered to become the second most powerful economy w the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests w networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown w the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.03 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $441 billion


expenditures: $718 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $84 billion
Stolica Tokyo
Klimat varies from tropical w south to cool temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 29,751 km
Konstytucja 3 maj 1947
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Japonia
Waluta yen (JPY)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Howard H. BAKER, Jr.


embassy: 1-10-5 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420


mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 205, APO AP 96337-5004


telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000


FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862


consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo


consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ryozo KATO


chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187


consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Hagatna (Guam), Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle


consulate(s): Saipan (Mariany Polnocne)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, claimed by Japonia; Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed z South Korea; Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) claimed by Chiny and Tajwan
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $9.1 billion (1999) (1999)
Ekonomia Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of Produkt krajowy brutto) have helped Japonia advance z extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most technologically powerful economy w the world after the US and third largest economy w the world after the US and Chiny. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors w closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment dla a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, z crop yields among the highest w the world. Usually self-sufficient w rice, Japonia must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japonia maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts dla nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average w the 1960s, a 5% average w the 1970s, and a 4% average w the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly w the 1990s largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth have met z little success and were further hampered w 2000-02 by the slowing of the US and Asian economies. The crowding of habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. Robotics constitutes a key long-term economic strength, z Japonia possessing 410,000 of the world's 720,000 "working robots". Internal conflict over the proper means to reform the ailing banking system will continue w 2003.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 943.71 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.015 trillion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 61%


hydro: 9%


nuclear: 29%


other: 2% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m


highest point: Fujiyama 3,776 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from power plant emissions results w acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japonia is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources w Asia and elsewhere
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Japoniaese 99%, others 1% (Korean 511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazyliaian 182,232, Filipino 89,851, other 237,914) (2000)
Kurs waluty yen per US dollar - 132.66 (styczen 2002), 121.53 (2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), 120.99 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 styczen 1989)


head of government: Prime Minister Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 24 kwiecien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the Diet designates the prime minister; the constitution requires that the prime minister must command a parliamentary majority, therefore, following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition w the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister


note: following the resignation of Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI, Junichiro KOIZUMI was elected as the new president of the majority Liberal Democratic Party, and soon thereafter designated by the Diet to become the next prime minister
Eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Eksport $383.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport - towary motor vehicles, semiconductors, office machinery, chemicals
Eksport - partnerzy US 30.1%, Chiny 7.7%, South Korea 6.3%, Tajwan 6.0%, Hong Kong 5.8% (2001)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi white z a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $3.55 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1%


industry: 31%


services: 68% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -0.3% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 36 00 N, 138 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location w northeast Asia
Ladowiska helikopterow 15 (2002)
Autostrady total: 1,152,207 km


paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways)


unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 5%


highest 10%: 22% (1993)
Import 0 kWh (2000)
Import $292.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles (2001)
Import - partnerzy US 18.1%, Chiny 16.6%, South Korea 4.9%, Tajwan 4.1%, Indonezja 4.3% (2001 est.)
Niepodleglosc 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -1.4% (2002 est.)
Przemysl among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja -0.9% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Dostawcy internetu 73 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 26,790 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
Sila robocza 67.7 million (grudzien 2000 )
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services 70%, industry 25%, agriculture 5% (2002 est.)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.13%


permanent crops: 1.01%


other: 86.86% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Japoniaese
System prawny modeled after European civil law system z English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (247 seats - formerly 252; one-half of the members elected every three years - 73 seats of which are elected from the 47 multi-seat prefectural districts and 48 of which are elected from a single nationwide list; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Shugi-in (480 seats - 180 of which are elected from 11 regional blocks on a proportional representation basis and 300 of which are elected from 300 single-seat districts; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: House of Councillors - last held 29 lipiec 2001 (next to be held NA lipiec 2004); House of Representatives - last held 25 czerwiec 2000 (next must be held by czerwiec 2004, but may occur sooner)


election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDP 110, DPJ 59, Komeito 23, JCP 20, SDP 8, Liberal Party 8, Conservative Party 5, independents 14; note - the distribution of seats as of styczen 2002 is: LDP 115, DPJ 60, Komeito 24, JCP 20, SDP 8, Liberal Party 8, independents 6, others 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDP 233, DPJ 127, Komeito 31, Liberal Party 22, JCP 20, SDP 19, other 28; note - the distribution of seats as of styczen 2002 is: LDP 242, DPJ 126, Komeito 31, Liberal Party 22, JCP 20, SDP 19, NCP 7, other 13
Zywotnosc total population: 80.91 years


male: 77.73 years


female: 84.25 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99% (1970 est.)


male: NA%


female: NA%
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Ocean Spokojny and the Sea of Japonia, east of the Korean Peninsula
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 24 NM


exclusive economic zone: 200 NM


territorial sea: 12 NM; between 3 NM and 12 NM w the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait
Flota handlowa total: 615 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,995,839 GRT/14,405,159 DWT


ships by type: bulk 133, cargo 48, chemical tanker 17, combination bulk 24, combination ore/oil 3, container 19, liquefied gas 50, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 189, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 48, short-sea passenger 6, vehicle carrier 54


note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chiny 1, Panama 1, Singapur 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Japonia Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japonia Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japonia Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Japoniaese Coast Guard
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $40,774.3 million (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 29,644,498 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 25,637,387 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 765,817 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 grudzien (1933)
Narodowosc noun: Japoniaese (singular and plural)


adjective: Japoniaese
Naturalne zagrozenia many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
Surowce naturalne negligible mineral resources, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Party of Japonia or DPJ [Yukio HATOYAMA, leader, Naoto KAN, secretary general]; Japonia Communist Party or JCP [Tetsuzo FUWA, chairman, Tadayeshi ICHIDA, secretary general]; Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president, Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Junichiro KOIZUMI, president, Taku YAMASAKI, secretary general]; Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA, president, Hirohisa FUJII, secretary general]; New Conservative Party or NCP [Takeshi NODA, president, Toshihiro NIKAI, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Takako DOI, chairperson, Mizuho FUKUSHIMA, secretary general]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 126,974,628 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.15% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai
Stacje radiowe AM 215 plus 370 repeaters, FM 89 plus 485 repeaters, shortwave 21 (2001)
Radia 120.5 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 23,654 km (15,895 km electrified)


standard gauge: 3,059 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified)


narrow gauge: 77 km 1.372-m gauge (entirely electrified); 20,491 km 1.067-m gauge (12,732 km electrified); 27 km 0.762-m gauge (entirely electrified) (2000)
Religie observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female


total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 20 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind


international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); submarine cables to Chiny, Filipiny, Rosja, and US (via Guam) (1999)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 60.381 million (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 63.88 million (2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 211 plus 7,341 repeaters


note: w addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged and mountainous
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.42 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.4% (2002)
Drogi wodne 1,770 km approximately


note: seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
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