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Irak (2008)

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Irak 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 region*; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Kurdistan Regional Government*, majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 39.4% (male 5,509,736/female 5,338,722)

15-64 years: 57.6% (male 8,018,841/female 7,812,611)

65 years and over: 3% (male 386,321/female 433,407) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
Lotniska 110 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 76

over 3,047 m: 19

2,438 to 3,047 m: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 34

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country until 2003, the last was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak under a UNSC mandate, helping to provide security and to support the freely elected government. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which temporarily administered Irak after the invasion, transferred full governmental authority on 28 czerwiec 2004 to the Iraki Interim Government, which governed under the Transitional Administrative Law dla Irak (TAL). Under the TAL, elections dla a 275-member Transitional National Assembly (TNA) were held w Irak on 30 styczen 2005. Following these elections, the Iraki Transitional Government (ITG) assumed office. The TNA was charged z drafting Irak's permanent constitution, which was approved w a 15 pazdziernik 2005 constitutional referendum. An election under the constitution dla a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) was held on 15 grudzien 2005. The CoR approval w the selection of most of the cabinet ministers on 20 maj 2006 marked the transition from the ITG to Irak's first constitutional government w nearly a half-century.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 31.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $42.3 billion

expenditures: $48.4 billion (FY08 est.)
Stolica name: Baghdad

geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 23 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 kwiecien; ends 1 pazdziernik
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja ratified on 15 pazdziernik 2005 (subject to review by the Konstytucjaal Review Committee and a possible public referendum )
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak

conventional short form: Irak

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al-Irakiyah

local short form: Al Irak
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $56.31 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER

embassy: Baghdad

mailing address: APO AE 09316

telephone: 1-240-553-0589 ext. 5340 or 5635; note - Consular Section

Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Samir Shakir al-SUMAYDI

chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500 (Consular section)

FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring internal and cross-border security; approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak, z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania, and lesser numbers to Egipt, Liban, Iran, and Turcja; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds w Irak
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $21.65 billion $13.5 billion pledged w foreign aid dla 2004-07 from outside of the US, over $33 billion pledged total (2005)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Although looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined economy rebuilding efforts, economic activity is beginning to pick up w areas recently secured by the US military surge. Oil exports are around levels seen before Operation Iraki Freedom, and total government revenues have benefited from high oil prices. Despite political uncertainty, Irak is making some progress w building the institutions needed to implement economic policy and has negotiated a debt reduction agreement z the Paris Club and a new Stand-By Arrangement z the IMF. The International Compact z Irak was established w maj 2007 to integrate Irak into the regional and global economy, and the Iraki government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen its economy. This legislation includes a hydrocarbon law to establish a modern legal framework to allow Irak to develop its resources and a revenue sharing law to equitably divide oil revenues within the nation, although both are still bogged down w discussions. The Central Bank has been successful w controlling inflation through appreciation of the dinar against the US dollar. Reducing corruption and implementing structural reforms, such as bank restructuring and developing the private sector, will be key to Irak's economic success.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 35.84 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.315 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 33.53 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%
Kurs waluty New Iraki dinars per US dollar - 1,255 (2007), 1,466 (2006), 1,475 (2005), 1,890 (second half, 2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 kwiecien 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 kwiecien 2006); note - the president and vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)

head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 maj 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH (since 20 maj 2006); second deputy prime minister positon vacant

cabinet: 34 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH; second deputy prime minister position vacant

elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
Eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Eksport $34.04 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1.67 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil 84%, crude materials excluding fuels 8%, food and live animals 5%
Eksport - partnerzy US 46.7%, Wlochy 10.7%, Hiszpania 6.2%, Kanada 6.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script is centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Jemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egipt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors; Council of Representatives approved this flag as a compromise temporary replacement dla Ba'athist Saddam-era flag
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5%

industry: 68%

services: 27% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 17 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Import 2.315 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Import $23.09 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import NA
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Syria 26.5%, Turcja 20.5%, US 11.8%, Jordania 7.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 czerwiec 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki-controlled Government
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 47.04 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 52.73 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.7% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo the Irak Konstytucja calls dla the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated w accordance z the law
Sila robocza 7.4 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Granica total: 3,650 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.12%

permanent crops: 0.61%

other: 86.27% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined w the Iraki Konstytucja; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza Council of Representatives (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional representation system)

elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives; the Council of Representatives elected the Presidency Council and approved the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers

election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Unified Iraki Alliance 41%, Kurdistan Alliance 22%, Tawafuq Coalition 15%, Iraki National List 8%, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue 4%, other 10%; number of seats by party (as of listopad 2007) - Unified Iraki Alliance (including the Sadrist bloc z 30 and Fadilah z 15) 130, Kurdistan Alliance 53, Tawafuq Front 44, Iraki National List 25, Fadilah 15, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue 11, other 12
Zywotnosc total population: 69.31 years

male: 68.04 years

female: 70.65 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.1%

male: 84.1%

female: 64.2% (2000 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: not specified
Flota handlowa total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,796 GRT/101,317 DWT

by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 2 (2007)
Wojsko Iraki Armed Forces: Iraki Army (includes Iraki Special Operations Force, Iraki Intervention Force), Iraki Navy (former Iraki Coastal Defense Force), Iraki Air Force (former Iraki Army Air Corps) (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 8.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime; the Government of Irak has yet to declare a new national holiday
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)

adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,250 km; liquid petroleum gas 918 km; oil 5,509 km; refined products 1,637 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa al-Islamiya Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; General Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid MAJEED]; Iraki Front dla National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahmud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Irak or ISCI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salah ad-Din Muhammad BAHA al-DIN]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR] (not an organized political party, but it fields independent candidates affiliated z Muqtada al-SADR); Sahawa al-Irak [Ahmed al-RISAWHI]

note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Tawafuq Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and Unified Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow an insurgency against the Government of Irak and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas north, northeast, and west of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency consists principally of Sunni Arabs z a shared desire to oust the Coalition, end US influence w Irak, and reassert Sunni Arab dominance; a number of predominantly Shia militias, some associated z political parties, challenge governmental authority w Baghdad and southern Irak
Ludnosc 27,499,638 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.618% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations (types NA) on the air inside Irak (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,272 km

standard gauge: 2,272 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.032 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.026 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.891 male(s)/female

total population: 1.024 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Irak severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are w progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly z an estimated 10.9 million current users

domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 continue; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on 3 GSM networks which are being expanded beyond their regional roots, improving country-wide connectivity; wireless local loop licences have been issued z the hope of overcoming the lack of fixed-line infrastructure

international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; planned international fiber-optic connections to Iran (terrestrial) z a link to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine fiber-optic cable (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.547 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 10.9 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 21 (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.07 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% to 30% (2006 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,279 km

note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,899 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2006)
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