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Iraq (2005)

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Iraq 2005 year

Administrative divisions 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Age structure 0-14 years: 40% (male 5,293,709/female 5,130,826)

15-64 years: 57% (male 7,530,619/female 7,338,109)

65 years and over: 3% (male 367,832/female 413,811) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
Airports 111; note - unknown number were damaged during the March-April 2003 war (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 79

over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 10 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 32

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)
Area total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Background Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country, the latest was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted in the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government, while simultaneously dealing with a robust insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government (IG) in June 2004. Iraqis voted on 30 January 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way for new national elections at the end of 2005.
Birth rate 32.5 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $17.1 billion

expenditures: $28.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2004 budget)
Capital Baghdad
Climate mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Coastline 58 km
Constitution interim constitution signed 8 March 2004; note - the Transitional Administrative Law (TAL) was enacted 8 March 2004 to govern the country until an elected Iraqi Government can draft and ratify a new constitution in 2005
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Iraq

conventional short form: Iraq

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah

local short form: Al Iraq
Death rate 5.49 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $125 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James F. JEFFREY

embassy: Baghdad

mailing address: APO AE 09316

telephone: 00-1-240-553-0584 ext. 4354; note - Consular Section

Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rend Rahim FRANCKE

chancery: 1801 P Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500

FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
Disputes - international coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring boundary security; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq
Economic aid - recipient more than $33 billion in foreign aid pledged for 2004-07 (2004)
Economy - overview Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning in December 1996 helped improve conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. The drop in GDP in 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the pre-1991 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition in March-April 2003 resulted in the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure. Although a comparatively small amount of capital plant was damaged during the hostilities, looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined efforts to rebuild the economy. Despite continuing political uncertainty, the Iraqi Interim Government (IG) has founded the institutions needed to implement economic policy, and has successfully concluded a debt reduction agreement with the Paris Club. The high percentage gain estimated for GDP in 2004 is the result of starting from a low base.
Electricity - consumption 33.7 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports 1.1 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production 32.6 billion kWh (2004)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Environment - current issues government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Exchange rates New Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 1,890 (second half, 2003), 0.3109 (2002), 0.3109 (2001), 0.3109 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Iraqi Transitional Government (ITG) President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005); Deputy Presidents Adil Abd AL-MAHDI and Ghazi al-Ujayl al-YAWR (since 6 April 2005); note - the President and Deputy Presidents comprise the Presidency Council)

head of government: Iraqi Transitional Government (ITG) Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI (since April 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Rowsch SHAWAYS, Ahmad CHALABI, and Abid al-Mutlaq al-JABBURI (since May 2005)

cabinet: 32 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI, Deputy Prime Ministers Rowsch SHAWAYS, Ahmad CHALABI, and Abid al-Mutlaq al-JABBURI

elections: held 30 January 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way for new national elections at the end of 2005
Exports 0 kWh (2004)
Exports $10.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Exports 1.49 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities crude oil (83.9%), crude materials excluding fuels (8.0%), food and live animals (5.0%)
Exports - partners US 51.9%, Spain 7.3%, Japan 6.6%, Italy 5.7%, Canada 5.2% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13.6%

industry: 58.6%

services: 27.8% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 52.3% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Heliports 6 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 45,550 km

paved: 38,399 km

unpaved: 7,151 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 1.1 billion kWh (2004)
Imports $9.9 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities food, medicine, manufactures
Imports - partners Syria 22.9%, Turkey 19.5%, US 9.2%, Jordan 6.7%, Germany 4.9% (2004)
Independence 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
Infant mortality rate total: 50.25 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 56.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 25.4% (2004 est.)
Irrigated land 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court appointed by the Prime Minister, confirmed by the Presidency Council
Labor force 6.7 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Land boundaries total: 3,650 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
Land use arable land: 13.15%

permanent crops: 0.78%

other: 86.07% (2001)
Languages Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Legal system based on civil and Islamic law under the Iraqi Interim Government (IG) and Transitional Administrative Law (TAL)
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Mejlis Watani (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional-representation system for the period between the National Assembly election and the formation of a permanent Iraqi government pursuant to the establishment of a permanent constitution)

elections: held 30 January 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way for new national elections at the end of 2005

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - United Iraqi Alliance 48.2%, Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan 25.7%, Iraqi List 13.8%, others 12.3%; number of seats by party - United Iraqi Alliance 140, Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan 75, Iraqi List 40, others 20
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.7 years

male: 67.49 years

female: 69.97 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 40.4%

male: 55.9%

female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: not specified
Merchant marine total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 83,221 GRT/125,255 DWT

by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 3 (2005)
Military branches Iraqi Armed Forces: Iraqi Regular Army (includes Iraqi Special Operations Force, Iraqi Intervention Force), Iraqi Navy (former Iraqi Coastal Defense Force), Iraqi Air Force (former Iraqi Army Air Corps) (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.3 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday Revolution Day, 17 July (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime but the Iraqi Interim Government has yet to declare a new national holiday
Nationality noun: Iraqi(s)

adjective: Iraqi
Natural hazards dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Constitutional Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Independent Iraqi Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraqi Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraqi Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraqi National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraqi National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraqi National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chairman]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad ' Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]

note: the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan, the Iraqi List, and the United Iraqi Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraqi political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders an insurgency against the Iraqi Interim Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated in Baghdad and in areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence in Iraq
Population 26,074,906 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 2.7% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Al Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
Radio broadcast stations after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations on the air inside Iraq (2004)
Railways total: 2,200 km

standard gauge: 2,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Religions Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage formerly 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communication facilities

domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed in the recent fighting continue, but sabotage remains a problem; cellular service is expected to be in place within two years

international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational
Telephones - main lines in use 675,000; note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the March-April 2003 war (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 20,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 21 (2004)
Terrain mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Total fertility rate 4.28 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 25% to 30% (2004 est.)
Waterways 5,275 km (not all navigable)

note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,895 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2004)
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