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Iraq (2003)

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Administrative divisions 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.7% (male 5,103,669; female 4,946,443)

15-64 years: 56.3% (male 7,033,268; female 6,855,644)

65 years and over: 3% (male 348,790; female 395,499) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
Airports 150 (2002); note - unknown number were damaged during the March-April 2003 war
Airports - with paved runways total: 77

over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 73

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Area total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Background Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted in the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government.
Birth rate 33.66 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Capital Baghdad
Climate mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Coastline 58 km
Constitution in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Iraq

conventional short form: Iraq

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah

local short form: Al Iraq
Currency Iraqi dinar (IQD)
Death rate 5.84 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $120 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Diplomatic representation in the US in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Disputes - international despite restored diplomatic relations in 1990, disputes with Iran over maritime and land boundaries, navigation channel, and other issues from eight-year war persist; land and Shatt al Arab boundary demarcation put an end to claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands, but no maritime boundary exists with Kuwait in the Persian Gulf; Iraq protests Turkey's hydrological projects to regulate the Tigris and Euphrates rivers upstream
Economic aid - recipient $327.5 million (1995)
Economy - overview Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least $100 billion. After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning in December 1996 helped improve conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In December 1999 the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Oil exports have recently been more than three-quarters prewar level. However, 28% of Iraq's export revenues under the program have been deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. The drop in GDP in 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the prewar level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition in March-April 2003 resulted in the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure and the loss of a comparatively small amount of capital plant.
Electricity - consumption 33.49 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 36.01 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 98.4%

hydro: 1.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: unamed peak 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Environment - current issues government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Exchange rates Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 0.31 (2002), 0.31 (2001), 0.31 (2000), 0.31 (1999), 0.31 (1998), note: fixed official rate since 1982; market rate subject to wide fluctuations
Executive branch chief of state: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $13 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities crude oil
Exports - partners US 40.9%, Canada 8.2%, France 8.2%, Jordan 7.5%, Netherlands 6.4%, Italy 5.4%, Morocco 4.7%, Spain 4.4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria which has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $58 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6%

industry: 13%

services: 81% (1993 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -3% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Heliports 5 (2002)
Highways total: 45,550 km

paved: 38,399 km

unpaved: 7,151 km (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $7.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities food, medicine, manufactures
Imports - partners Jordan 11%, France 8.8%, China 8.4%, Germany 7.6%, Russia 7.3%, Australia 7.2%, Vietnam 6.6%, Italy 6.4%, Japan 5.6% (2002)
Independence 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Infant mortality rate total: 55.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.09 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 70% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Labor force 6.5 million (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 3,650 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
Land use arable land: 11.89%

permanent crops: 0.78%

other: 87.33% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Legal system in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Legislative branch in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.81 years

male: 66.7 years

female: 68.99 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 40.4%

male: 55.9%

female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims continental shelf: not specified

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 119,433 GRT/170,221 DWT

ships by type: cargo 9, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam; note - with the defeat of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, the data listed in the following entries for Iraq is invalid, but is retained here for historical purposes and until replaced by valid information related to the future Iraqi Government (April 2003)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.3 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 6,339,458 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,541,467 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 292,930 (2003 est.)
National holiday Revolution Day, 17 July (1968)
Nationality noun: Iraqi(s)

adjective: Iraqi
Natural hazards dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Population 24,683,313 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 2.78% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality
Radio broadcast stations AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 1,963 km

standard gauge: 1,963 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religions Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage formerly 18 years of age; universal; note - in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Telephone system general assessment: an unknown number of telecommunication facilities were damaged during the March-April 2003 war

domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational
Telephones - main lines in use 675,000 (1997); note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the March-April war
Telephones - mobile cellular NA; service available in northern Iraq (2001)
Television broadcast stations 13 (1997); note - unknown number were destroyed during the March-April 2003 war
Terrain mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Total fertility rate 4.52 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 1,015 km

note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Gulf war
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