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Grecja (2008)

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Grecja 2008 roku

 Grecja
Podzial administracyjny 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos) and 1 autonomous region*; Achaia, Agion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Argolis, Arkadia, Arta, Attiki, Chalkidiki, Chanion, Chios, Dodekanisos, Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evvoia, Florina, Fokidos, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Kyklades, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkas, Lesvos, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethynnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakynthos
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.3% (male 789,637/female 742,535)


15-64 years: 66.7% (male 3,565,237/female 3,570,630)


65 years and over: 19% (male 895,384/female 1,142,867) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
Lotniska 81 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 66


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 15


1,524 to 2,437 m: 20


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 15


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Terytorium total: 131,940 sq km


land: 130,800 sq km


water: 1,140 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alabama
Tlo historyczne Grecja achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire w 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most z Greek-speaking populations. In Swiat War II, Grecja was first invaded by Wlochy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Niemcy (1941-44); fighting endured w a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat w 1949, Grecja joined NATO w 1952. A military dictatorship, which w 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. The 1974 democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981 Grecja joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the euro zone w 2001.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.62 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $111.9 billion


expenditures: $120.7 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Athens


geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Linia brzegowa 13,676 km
Konstytucja 11 czerwiec 1975; amended marzec 1986 and kwiecien 2001
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Hellenic Republic


conventional short form: Grecja


local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia


local short form: Ellas or Ellada


former: Kingdom of Grecja
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.33 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $371.5 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel V. SPECKHARD


embassy: 91 Vasilisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens


mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108


telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951


FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282


consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Alexandros P. MALLIAS


chancery: 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300


FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Tampa


consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Grecja and Turcja continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question z Turcja; Grecja rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem dla developed countries, chiefly Grecja and Wlochy
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $8 billion annually from EU (2000-06); Grecja will receive about $3.8 billion per year between 2007-13 under the EU's Community Support Funds IV
Ekonomia Grecja has a capitalist economy z the public sector accounting dla about 40% of Produkt krajowy brutto and z per capita Produkt krajowy brutto at least 75% of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of Produkt krajowy brutto. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly w agricultural and unskilled jobs. Grecja is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual Produkt krajowy brutto. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4.0% per year between 2003 and 2007, due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and w part to an increased availability of credit, which has sustained record levels of consumer spending. Grecja violated the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criteria of no more than 3% of Produkt krajowy brutto from 2001 to 2006, but finally met that criteria w 2007. Public debt, inflation, and unemployment are above the euro-zone average, but are falling. The Greek Government continues to grapple z cutting government spending, reducing the size of the public sector, and reforming the labor and pension systems, w the face of often vocal opposition from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public. The economy remains an important domestic political issue w Grecja and, while the ruling New Democracy government has had some success w improving economic growth and reducing the budget deficit, Athens faces long-term challenges w its effort to continue its economic reforms, especially social security reform and privatization.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 54.31 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.836 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.616 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 56.13 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m


highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution; water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Grupy etniczne population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)


note: percents represent citizenship, since Grecja does not collect data on ethnicity
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 marzec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos (Kostas) KARAMANLIS (since 7 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 luty 2005 (next to be held by luty 2010); according to the Greek Konstytucja, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote w election to become prime minister and form a government


election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS elected president; number of parliamentary votes, 279 out of 300
Eksport 1.836 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $25.76 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 119,200 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 11.5%, Wlochy 11.5%, Bulgaria 6.5%, UK 6.1%, Cypr 5.5%, Turcja 5.2%, Francja 4.5%, US 4.5%, Hiszpania 4.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating z white; there is a blue square w the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.2%


industry: 20.6%


services: 76.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 39 00 N, 22 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
Ladowiska helikopterow 9 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.5%


highest 10%: 26% (2000 est.)
Narkotyki a gateway to Europe dla traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed w Grecja; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime
Import 5.616 billion kWh (2005)
Import $79.92 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 2.707 billion cu m (2005)
Import 550,400 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 12.6%, Wlochy 11.5%, Rosja 7.1%, Francja 6%, Holandia 5.2%, South Korea 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 4.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 14,530 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed dla life by the president after consultation z a judicial council
Sila robocza 4.94 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 12%


industry: 20%


services: 68% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 1,228 km


border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turcja 206 km, Macedonia 246 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 20.45%


permanent crops: 8.59%


other: 70.96% (2005)
Jezyki Greek 99% (official), other 1% (includes English and French)
System prawny based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: elections last held 16 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held by 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - ND 41.8%, PASOK 38.1%, KKE 8.2%, Synaspismos 5%, LAOS 3.8%, other 3.1%; seats by party - ND 152, PASOK 102, KKE 22, Synaspismos 14, LAOS 10
Zywotnosc total population: 79.38 years


male: 76.85 years


female: 82.06 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 96%


male: 97.8%


female: 94.2% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turcja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 824 ships (1000 GRT or over) 33,654,384 GRT/57,898,789 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 246, cargo 66, carrier 1, chemical tanker 52, combination ore/oil 1, container 43, liquefied gas 6, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 269, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 1


foreign-owned: 49 (Belgia 16, Cypr 5, Wlochy 1, South Korea 2, UK 15, US 10)


registered w other countries: 2,324 (Antigua i Barbuda 3, Bahamas 214, Barbados 11, Belgia 4, Bermudy 3, Kambodza 5, Kajmany 23, Chiny 1, Komory 8, Cypr 292, Dania 4, Dominika 8, Egipt 8, Georgia 7, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 30, Wyspa Man 48, Wlochy 13, Jamajka 8, Liban 2, Liberia 311, Malediwy 1, Malta 448, Wyspy Marshalla 226, Norwegia 6, Panama 505, Filipiny 3, Portugalia 4, Rosja 1, Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca 1, Arabia Saudyjska 2, Sierra Leone 1, Singapur 14, Slowacja 4, St Kitts and Nevis 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 81, UAE 3, UK 6, Urugwaj 1, Wenezuela 3, unknown 8) (2007)
Wojsko Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Ellinikos Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polimiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 25 marzec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Greek(s)


adjective: Greek
Naturalne zagrozenia severe earthquakes
Surowce naturalne lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,166 km; oil 94 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Grecja or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]; Federation of Greek Przemysl or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Ludnosc 10,706,290 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.163% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,571 km


standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge


dual gauge: 23 km combined 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (three rail system) (2006)
Religie Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.063 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.783 male(s)/female


total population: 0.962 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service


domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands


international: country code - 30; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cypr; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 6.185 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 11.098 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 36 (plus 1,341 repeaters); also 2 stations w the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains z ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.35 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.4% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 6 km


note: Corinth Canal (6 km) crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; shortens sea voyage by 325 km (2007)
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