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Greece (2001)

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Greece 2001 year

Administrative divisions 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos)and 1 autonomous region*; Ayion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos
Age structure 0-14 years:
14.98% (male 820,219; female 771,466)

15-64 years:
67.3% (male 3,580,535; female 3,569,755)

65 years and over:
17.72% (male 834,234; female 1,047,626) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
Airports 81 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
9 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
10 (2000 est.)
Area total:
131,940 sq km

130,800 sq km

1,140 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alabama
Background Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. Democratic elections in 1974 and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992).
Birth rate 9.83 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$45 billion

$47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Athens
Climate temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Coastline 13,676 km
Constitution 11 June 1975; amended March 1986
Country name conventional long form:
Hellenic Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Elliniki Dhimokratia

local short form:
Ellas or Ellada

Kingdom of Greece
Currency drachma (GRD); euro (EUR)

on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Greece (which entered the European Monetary Union on 1 January 2001) at a fixed rate of 340.750 drachmae per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002
Death rate 9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $57 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador R. Nicholas BURNS

91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens

mailing address:
PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108

[30] (1) 721-2951

[30] (1) 645-6282

consulate(s) general:
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Alexandros PHILON

2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 939-5800

[1] (202) 939-5824

consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Atlanta, Houston, and New Orleans
Disputes - international complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over its name
Economic aid - recipient $5.4 billion from EU (1997 est.)
Economy - overview Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about half of GDP. Tourism is a key industry, providing a large portion of GDP and foreign exchange earnings. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 4% of GDP. The economy has improved steadily over the last few years, as the government has tightened policy in the run-up to Greece's entry into the EU's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2001. In particular, Greece has cut its budget deficit to below 1% of GDP and tightened monetary policy, with the result that inflation fell from 20% in 1990 to 3.1% in 2000. Major challenges remaining include the reduction of unemployment and further restructuring of the economy, including the privatization of some leading state enterprises. Growth, 3.8% in 2000, may fall off to 3%-3.5% in 2001.
Electricity - consumption 43.343 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 1.65 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1.811 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 46.432 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.68% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Mount Olympus 2,917 m
Environment - current issues air pollution; water pollution
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Greek 98%, other 2%

the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Exchange rates drachmae per US dollar - 380.21 (December 2000), 365.40 (2000), 305.65 (1999), 295.53 (1998), 273.06 (1997), 240.71 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995)

head of government:
Prime Minister Konstandinos SIMITIS (since 19 January 1996)

Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 8 February 2000 (next to be held by NA March 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Konstandinos STEPHANOPOULOS reelected president; percent of Parliament vote - 90%
Exports 1.65 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities manufactured goods, food and beverages, petroleum products
Exports - partners EU 49% (Germany 15%, Italy 13%, UK 6%), US 6% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country
GDP purchasing power parity - $181.9 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


64.4% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $17,200 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 00 N, 22 00 E
Geography - note strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
Heliports 2 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
117,000 km

107,406 km (including 470 km of expressways)

9,594 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
25.3% (1993 est.)
Illicit drugs a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece
Imports 1.811 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $33.9 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities manufactured goods, foodstuffs, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners EU 66% (Italy 15%, Germany 15%, France 9%, UK 6%) (1999)
Independence 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate 7% (2000 est.)
Industries tourism; food and tobacco processing, textiles; chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Infant mortality rate 6.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2000 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 27 (2000)
Irrigated land 13,140 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council
Labor force 4.32 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 21%, agriculture 20%, services 59% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total:
1,210 km

border countries:
Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

12% (1993 est.)
Languages Greek 99% (official), English, French
Legal system based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held by NA April 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PASOK 43.8%, ND 42.7%, KKE 5.5%, Coalition of the Left and Progress 3.2%; seats by party - PASOK 158, ND 125, KKE 11, Coalition of the Left and Progress 6
Life expectancy at birth total population:
78.59 years

76.03 years

81.32 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


93% (1991 est.)
Location Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea:
6 NM
Merchant marine total:
780 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,564,988 GRT/44,761,916 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 272, cargo 55, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 51, liquefied gas 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 255, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 20, short-sea passenger 63, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 1

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: South Korea 1, UK 4 (2000 est.)
Military branches Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard, Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $6.12 billion (FY99/00 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.91% (FY99/00 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,673,539 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,040,227 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 21 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
77,976 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards severe earthquakes
Natural resources bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble, hydropower potential
Net migration rate 1.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km
Political parties and leaders Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Nikolaos KONSTANDOPOULOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Konstandinos SIMITIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,623,835 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.21% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Alexandroupolis, Elefsis, Irakleion (Crete), Kavala, Kerkyra, Chalkis, Igoumenitsa, Lavrion, Patrai, Peiraiefs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki, Volos
Radio broadcast stations AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 5.02 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,548 km

standard gauge:
1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (36 km electrified; 23 km double track)

narrow gauge:
961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (a rack-type railway for steep grades)
Religions Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment:
adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service

microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands

tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 5.431 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 937,700 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 36 (plus 1,341 low-power repeaters); also two stations in the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)
Terrain mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Total fertility rate 1.33 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.3% (2000 est.)
Waterways 80 km

system consists of three coastal canals including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Peiraiefs (Piraeus) by 325 km; there are also three unconnected rivers
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