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Czad (2008)

Czad - wybierz rok:
CzadCzad (2001) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2002) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2003) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2004) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2005) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2006) (porownaj)
CzadCzad (2007) (porownaj)


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Czad 2008 roku

 Czad
Podzial administracyjny 18 regions (regions, singular - region); Batha, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, majo-Kebbi Est, majo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 2,366,496/female 2,308,155)


15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,250,211/female 2,676,076)


65 years and over: 2.9% (male 120,666/female 164,057) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Lotniska 55 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 7


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 48


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 21


under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1.284 million sq km


land: 1,259,200 sq km


water: 24,800 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than three times the size of California
Tlo historyczne Czad, part of Francja's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libia before a semblance of peace was finally restored w 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections w 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out w northern Czad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged w western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Czad, despite signing peace agreements w grudzien 2006 and pazdziernik 2007. Power remains w the hands of an ethnic minority. In czerwiec 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election w 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat w early 2008.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 42.35 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.889 billion


expenditures: $1.473 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: N'Djamena


geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical w south, desert w north
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja passed by referendum 31 marzec 1996; a czerwiec 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Czad


conventional short form: Czad


local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad


local short form: Tchad/Tshad
Wspolczynnik zgonow 16.69 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.6 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Louis NIGRO


embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena


mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena


telephone: [235] 251-62-11, [235] 251-70-09, [235] 251-77-59


FAX: [235] 251-56-54
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR


chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009


FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Czad; Czad remains an important mediator w the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions z Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Czadian Aozou rebels reside w southern Libia; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $379.8 million (2005)
Ekonomia Czad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects w the oil sector that began w 2000. Over 80% of Czad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising dla its livelihood. Czad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Czad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital dla most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - w southern Czad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and plan to build a refinery. The nation's total oil reserves have been estimated to be 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream w late 2003. Czad began to export oil w 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Czad's non-oil export earnings.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 88.35 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 95 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m


highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal w rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Grupy etniczne Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, majo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
Kurs waluty Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 480.1 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 grudzien 1990)


head of government: Prime Minister Nouradine Delwa KASSIRE Koumakoye (since 26 luty 2007)


cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand dla a second round of voting; last held 3 maj 2006 (next to be held by maj 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a czerwiec 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run dla reelection
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $4.219 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 170,000 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
Eksport - partnerzy US 80.6%, Chiny 10.4%, South Korea 2.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red


note: similar to the flag of Rumunia; also similar to the flags of Andora and Moldawia, both of which have a national coat of arms centered w the yellow band; design was based on the flag of Francja
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 22.2%


industry: 47.2%


services: 30.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -1.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; Lake Czad is the most significant water body w the Sahel
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $1.149 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 1,316 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Import - partnerzy Francja 18.6%, Kamerun 17.6%, US 12.5%, Niemcy 7.4%, Arabia Saudyjska 5%, Belgia 4.9% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 11 sierpien 1960 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -0.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 102.07 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 108.27 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 95.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 300 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Sila robocza 3.747 million (2006)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)


industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 5,968 km


border countries: Kamerun 1,094 km, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,197 km, Libia 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.8%


permanent crops: 0.02%


other: 97.18% (2005)
Jezyki French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
System prawny based on French civil law system and Czadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the 1996 constitution called dla a Senate that has never been formed


elections: National Assembly - last held 21 kwiecien 2002 (next to be held by 2007)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, other 11
Zywotnosc total population: 47.2 years


male: 46.17 years


female: 48.27 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic


total population: 47.5%


male: 56%


female: 39.3% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Africa, south of Libia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Czadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Czadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.2% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 11 sierpien (1960)
Narodowosc noun: Czadian(s)


adjective: Czadian
Naturalne zagrozenia hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur w north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Surowce naturalne petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Czad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi oil 250 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Federation Action dla the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally dla Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union dla Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party dla Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union dla Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 9,885,661 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 80% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.32% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)
Religie Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.025 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.841 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.736 male(s)/female


total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: primitive system z high costs and low telephone density


domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations


international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 13,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 466,100 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu broad, arid plains w center, desert w north, mountains w northwest, lowlands w south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.56 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only w wet season (2006)
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