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Chad (2003)

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Chad 2003 year

Administrative divisions 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,228,605; female 2,201,368)

15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,171,169; female 2,393,184)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 105,686; female 153,481) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Airports 50 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 43

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Area total: 1.284 million sq km

land: 1,259,200 sq km

water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than three times the size of California
Background Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997, respectively. In 1998, a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. A peace agreement, signed in January 2002 between the government and the rebels, provides for the demobilization of the rebels and their reintegration into the political system. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.
Birth rate 47.06 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $198 million

expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)
Capital N'Djamena
Climate tropical in south, desert in north
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution passed by referendum 31 March 1996
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form: Chad

local long form: Republique du Tchad

local short form: Tchad
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Death rate 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT

embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena

mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena

telephone: [235] (51) 70-09

FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE

chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Disputes - international internal political instabilities with fighting and violence overlap into Chad and Central African Republic, leaving refugees and rebel groups in both countries; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias; Chad rejects Nigerian request to redemarcate boundary, the site of continuing cross-border incidents
Economic aid - recipient $238.3 million; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank; ODA $150 million
Economy - overview Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for its livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production is scheduled to come on stream in late 2003.
Electricity - consumption 87.46 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 94.04 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m

highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Ethnic groups 200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Moussa Faki MAHAMAT (since NA July 2003)

cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%

note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $197 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities cotton, cattle, gum arabic
Exports - partners Portugal 28.3%, Germany 13.6%, US 7.8%, Czech Republic 6.5%, France 5.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Poland 5.5%, Spain 5.2%, Morocco 4.5% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.297 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 38%

industry: 13%

services: 49% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Highways total: 33,400 km

paved: 267 km

unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $570 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners France 31.5%, US 31.4%, Germany 5.5%, Nigeria 4.6% (2002)
Independence 11 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (1995)
Industries oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Infant mortality rate total: 95.74 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 105 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 86.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 200 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Land boundaries total: 5,968 km

border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Land use arable land: 2.78%

permanent crops: 0.02%

other: 97.2% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Legal system based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years)

elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held in NA April 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.51 years

male: 46.97 years

female: 50.1 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic

total population: 47.5%

male: 56%

female: 39.3% (2003 est.)
Location Central Africa, south of Libya
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $40.74 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,940,328 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,015,982 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 86,953 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Nationality noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian
Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Natural resources petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines oil 205 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 9,253,493 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 3.07% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)
Railways 0 km
Religions Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: primitive system

domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 9,700 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5,500 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Terrain broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Total fertility rate 6.44 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 2,000 km
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