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Chad (2001)

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Chad 2001 year

Administrative divisions 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
Age structure 0-14 years:
47.73% (male 2,091,724; female 2,064,514)

15-64 years:
49.46% (male 2,035,099; female 2,271,389)

65 years and over:
2.81% (male 101,579; female 142,773) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Airports 50 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
11 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1.284 million sq km

1,259,200 sq km

24,800 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than three times the size of California
Background Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.
Birth rate 48.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$198 million

$218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)
Capital N'Djamena
Climate tropical in south, desert in north
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution passed by referendum 31 March 1995
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Chad

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republique du Tchad

local short form:
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Death rate 15.4 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT

Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena

mailing address:
B. P. 413, N'Djamena

[235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33

[235] (51) 56-54
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE

2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 462-4009

[1] (202) 265-1937
Disputes - international delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Economic aid - recipient $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank
Economy - overview Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from its geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African Development Fund, and other sources is directed largely at the improvement of agriculture, especially livestock production. The World Bank's decision to back the Doba oil field development and the Chad-Cameroon pipeline will add Chad to the group of already booming West African oil exporters. However, the rank and file may not benefit much from the oil development projects.
Electricity - consumption 83.7 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 90 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Djourab Depression 160 m

highest point:
Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Ethnic groups Muslims, commonly referred to as "northerners" or "gorane" (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba); non-Muslims, commonly referred to as "southerners" (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) including nonindigenous 150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

ethnicity and regional background more commonly used to identify Chadians than religious affiliation
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)

head of government:
Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December 1999)

Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%

government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton, cattle, textiles
Exports - partners Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica, South Africa, France (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
GDP purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


46% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Highways total:
33,400 km

267 km

33,133 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5% (1999)
Independence 11 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (1995)
Industries cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Infant mortality rate 95.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 140 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Land boundaries total:
5,968 km

border countries:
Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

35% (1993 est.)
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects
Legal system based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de Transition

National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January and 23 February 1997 (next to be held in late 2001); in the first round of voting some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPS 65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13
Life expectancy at birth total population:
50.88 years

48.86 years

52.98 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic

total population:


34.7% (1995 est.)
Location Central Africa, south of Libya
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force, Police, Rural and Nomadic Guard (GNNT)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $39 million (FY96)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.5% (FY96)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,814,578 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
949,997 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
82,003 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Natural resources petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 8,707,078 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 64% (1995 est.)
Population growth rate 3.29% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 1.67 million (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly animism) 25%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
primitive system

fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 7,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Terrain broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Total fertility rate 6.56 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 2,000 km
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