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Bulgaria (2002)

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Bulgaria 2002 year

Administrative divisions 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961; female 543,004)

15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199; female 2,648,461)

65 years and over: 16.9% (male 540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets
Airports 215 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 128

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 92 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 75 (2002)
Area total: 110,910 sq km

land: 110,550 sq km

water: 360 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Tennessee
Background The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began accession negotiations in 2000.
Birth rate 8.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $5.57 billion

expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Sofia
Climate temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Coastline 354 km
Constitution adopted 12 July 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria

conventional short form: Bulgaria
Currency lev (BGL)
Death rate 14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $10.3 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW

embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia 1000

mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5740

telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100

FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Elena POPTODOROVA

chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969

FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

consulate(s): New York
Disputes - international because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary
Economic aid - recipient $300 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and positive growth rates since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 will help the government maintain economic stability as it seeks to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment and, at the same time, cut the budget deficit and contain inflation.
Electricity - consumption 34.42 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 1.5 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 38.84 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 48%

hydro: 8%

nuclear: 44%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)
Exchange rates leva per US dollar - 2.2147 (January 2002), 2.1847 (2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997)

note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev
Executive branch chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister

election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%
Exports 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Exports - partners Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Serbia and Montenegro 8% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)
GDP purchasing power parity - $50.6 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 14%

industry: 29%

services: 58% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Geography - note strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 37,288 km

paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,502 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5%

highest 10%: 23% (1997)
Illicit drugs major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions
Imports 1.5 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles
Imports - partners Russia 19.9%, Germany 15.3%, Italy 9.6%, France 6.0% (2001)
Independence 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2002 est.)
Industries electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Infant mortality rate 14.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.9% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 200 (2001)
Irrigated land 8,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Labor force 3.83 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,808 km

border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Land use arable land: 39%

permanent crops: 1.8%

other: 59.2% (1998 est.)
Languages Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Legal system civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UtdDF 18.18%, CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UtdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of March 2003 - NMS2 110, UtdDF 50, CFB 48, MRF 20, independents 12
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.5 years

male: 67.98 years

female: 75.22 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1999)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 881,758 GRT/1,312,833 DWT

ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $356 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,566,816 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 56,104 (2002 est.)
National holiday Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Nationality noun: Bulgarian(s)

adjective: Bulgarian
Natural hazards earthquakes, landslides
Natural resources bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -4.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)
Political parties and leaders Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; People's Union or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Ekaterina NADEZHDA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtdDF (a coalition between the UDF and PU, dominated by the former)
Political pressure groups and leaders agrarian movement; Bulgarian Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Population 7,621,337 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 35% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate -1.11% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin
Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
Radios 4.51 million (1997)
Railways total: 4,294 km

standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)
Religions Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: extensive but antiquated

domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay

international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Telephones - main lines in use 3,186,731 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.054 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Total fertility rate 1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 18% (2002 est.)
Waterways 470 km (1987)
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