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Bulgaria (2006)

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Bulgaria 2006 year

Administrative divisions 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Age structure 0-14 years: 13.9% (male 527,881/female 502,334)

15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,496,054/female 2,579,680)

65 years and over: 17.3% (male 527,027/female 752,391) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
Airports 217 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 132

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 96 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 85

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 72 (2006)
Area total: 110,910 sq km

land: 110,550 sq km

water: 360 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Tennessee
Background The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and is slated to join the EU in 2007.
Birth rate 9.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $11.18 billion

expenditures: $10.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Sofia

geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Coastline 354 km
Constitution adopted 12 July 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria

conventional short form: Bulgaria

local long form: Republika Balgariya

local short form: Balgariya
Death rate 14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $15.32 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John Ross BEYRLE

embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407

mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740

telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100

FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA

chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174

FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $475 million per year in EU pre-accession aid (2004-06)
Economy - overview Bulgaria, a former communist country soon to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals, including coal, copper, and zinc, play an important role in industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German D-mark - the currency is now fixed against the euro - and the negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady progress on structural reforms improved the business environment; Bulgaria has averaged 4% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.
Electricity - consumption 25.1 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports 6.8 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 1.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 45 billion kWh (2004)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Ethnic groups Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)
Exchange rates leva per US dollar - 1.5741 (2005), 1.5751 (2004), 1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002), 2.1847 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly

election results: Georgi PURVANOV reelected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67
Exports 6.8 billion kWh (2003)
Exports $11.67 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2003)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Exports - partners Italy 12%, Turkey 10.5%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 9.5%, France 4.6% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note - the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 9.3%

industry: 30.4%

services: 60.3% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.5% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Geography - note strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Heliports 4 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 23.7% (2001)
Illicit drugs major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions
Imports 1.3 billion kWh (2003)
Imports $16.78 billion f.o.b. (2005)
Imports 2.9 billion cu m (2004)
Imports 85,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partners Russia 15.6%, Germany 13.6%, Italy 9%, Turkey 6.1%, Greece 5%, France 4.7% (2005)
Independence 3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate 7.9% (2005)
Industries electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Infant mortality rate total: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2005)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 5,880 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Labor force 3.34 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 11%

industry: 32.7%

services: 56.3% (3rd qtr. 2004 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,808 km

border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Land use arable land: 29.94%

permanent crops: 1.9%

other: 68.16% (2005)
Languages Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Legal system civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%, MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, UDF 20, ATAKA 17, DSB 17, BPU 13, independents 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.3 years

male: 68.68 years

female: 76.13 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.2% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 75 ships (1000 GRT or over) 872,653 GRT/1,294,877 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 17, chemical tanker 4, container 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Russia 1)

registered in other countries: 41 (Cambodia 1, Comoros 1, Malta 13, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17, Slovakia 7, unknown 1) (2006)
Military branches Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Force (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $356 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (2003)
National holiday Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Nationality noun: Bulgarian(s)

adjective: Bulgarian
Natural hazards earthquakes, landslides
Natural resources bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,505 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen Siderov]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF)
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Population 7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line Below $2.15 per day (PPP) 4% (2003)
Population growth rate -0.86% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
Railways total: 4,294 km

standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2005)
Religions Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other 4% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: extensive but antiquated

domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay

international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Telephones - main lines in use 2,483,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6.245 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Total fertility rate 1.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.9% (2005)
Waterways 470 km (2006)
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