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Brunei (2001)

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Brunei 2001 year

Administrative divisions 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Age structure 0-14 years:
30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772)

15-64 years:
66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007)

65 years and over:
2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Airports 2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
5,770 sq km

5,270 sq km

500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries. The same family has now ruled in Brunei for over six centuries.
Birth rate 20.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$2.5 billion

$2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)
Capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Coastline 161 km
Constitution 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Country name conventional long form:
Negara Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form:
Currency Bruneian dollar (BND)
Death rate 3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $0
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD

Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

mailing address:
PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507

[673] (2) 229670

[673] (2) 225293
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam

3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 342-0159

[1] (202) 342-0158
Disputes - international possibly involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island
Economic aid - recipient $4.3 million (1995)
Economy - overview This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. Exports of crude oil and natural gas account for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, a further widening of the economic base beyond oil and gas.
Electricity - consumption 2.274 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 2.445 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
South China Sea 0 m

highest point:
Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Environment - current issues seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to:
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Exchange rates Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.7365 (January 2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Executive branch chief of state:
Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $2.55 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
Exports - commodities crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports - partners Japan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
GDP purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


49% (1996 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Geography - note close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
Heliports 3 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
1,712 km

1,284 km

428 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)
Independence 1 January 1984 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (1997 est.)
Industries petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Infant mortality rate 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (1999 est.)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Labor force 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers and military personnel

temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)
Labor force - by occupation government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
381 km

border countries:
Malaysia 381 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

12% (1993 est.)
Languages Malay (official), English, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)

last held in March 1962

in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years
Life expectancy at birth total population:
73.82 years

71.45 years

76.31 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


83.4% (1995 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone:
200 NM or to median line

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

ships by type:
liquefied gas 7 (2000 est.)
Military branches Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $343 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.1% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
106,725 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
61,640 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
3,005 (2001 est.)
National holiday National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, timber
Net migration rate 4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Political parties and leaders Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 343,653 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.11% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 329,000 (1998)
Railways total:
13 km (private line)

narrow gauge:
13 km 0.610-m gauge
Religions Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.92 male(s)/female

total population:
1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage none
Telephone system general assessment:
service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia

every service available

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 79,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 43,524 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Total fertility rate 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.9% (1995 est.)
Waterways 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m
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