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Brunei (2005)

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Brunei 2005 year

Administrative divisions 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Age structure 0-14 years: 28.6% (male 54,342/female 52,084)

15-64 years: 68.4% (male 134,908/female 119,814)

65 years and over: 3% (male 5,301/female 5,912) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Airports 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 5,770 sq km

land: 5,270 sq km

water: 500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.
Birth rate 19.01 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.9 billion

expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (2003 est.)
Capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Coastline 161 km
Constitution 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Country name conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form: Brunei
Death rate 3.42 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $0
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON

embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507

telephone: [673] (2) 229670

FAX: [673] (2) 225293
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH

chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838

FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
Disputes - international in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
Electricity - consumption 2.286 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 2.458 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Environment - current issues seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Exchange rates Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 199,000 bbl/day (2003)
Exports - commodities crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports - partners Japan 38.1%, South Korea 14%, Australia 11.2%, US 8.6%, Thailand 7.9%, Indonesia 5.9%, China 4.5% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5%

industry: 45%

services: 50% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,600 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Geography - note close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
Heliports 3 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 2,525 km

paved: 2,525 km

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $5.2 billion c.i.f. (2003)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners Singapore 32.7%, Malaysia 21.2%, UK 8.3%, Japan 7.2% (2004)
Independence 1 January 1984 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Infant mortality rate total: 12.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 15.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.3% (2003 est.)
International organization participation APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, C, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Labor force 158,000

note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 381 km

border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Land use arable land: 0.57%

permanent crops: 0.76%

other: 98.67% (2001)
Languages Malay (official), English, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Legislative branch Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005

elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.8 years

male: 72.36 years

female: 77.36 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.9%

male: 96.3%

female: 91.4% (2002)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT

by type: liquefied gas 8

foreign-owned: 8 (United Kingdom 8) (2005)
Military branches Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $290.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.1% (2004)
National holiday National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun: Bruneian(s)

adjective: Bruneian
Natural hazards typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, timber
Net migration rate 3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders National Development Party (NDP) [Yassin AFFENDI]; National Unity Party of Brunei (PPKB) [leader NA]; People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [leader NA]

note: parties are small and inactive (2005)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 372,361 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 1.9% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Lumut, Muara, Seria
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage none
Telephone system general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US

domestic: every service available

international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 90,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 137,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Total fertility rate 2.3 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.2% (2002 est.)
Waterways 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2004)
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