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Bangladesh (2002)

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Bangladesh 2002 year

Administrative divisions 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.8% (male 23,069,242; female 21,995,457)

15-64 years: 62.8% (male 42,924,778; female 40,873,077)

65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,444,314; female 2,069,816) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Airports 18 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 144,000 sq km

land: 133,910 sq km

water: 10,090 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Iowa
Background Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Birth rate 25.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.9 billion

expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Capital Dhaka
Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Coastline 580 km
Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

former: East Pakistan
Currency taka (BDT)
Death rate 8.47 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $17 billion (2000) (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS

embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212

mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722

FAX: [880] (2) 8823744
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD

chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international only a small portion of the boundary with India remains undelimited; discussions to demarcate the boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, and allocate divided villages remain stalled; skirmishes, illegal border trafficking, and violence along the border continue; Bangladesh has protested India's attempts to fence off high traffic sections of the porous boundary; Burmese attempts to construct a dam on the border stream in 2001 prompted an armed response halting construction; Burmese Muslim refugees migrate into Bangladesh straining meager resources
Economic aid - recipient $1.575 billion
Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single most important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's level of political will to do so has been lacking.
Electricity - consumption 12.548 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 13.493 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 92%

hydro: 8%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)
Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 57.756 (January 2002), 55.807 (2001), 52.142 (2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 Sepember 2002); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections

head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $6.6 billion (2001)
Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Exports - partners US 31.8%, Germany 10.9%, UK 7.9%, France 5.2%, Netherlands 5.2%, Italy 4.42% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $230 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30%

industry: 18%

services: 52% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,750 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.6% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Geography - note most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Highways total: 201,182 km

paved: 19,112 km

unpaved: 182,070 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 29%
Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $8.7 billion (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners India 10.5%, EU 9.5%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 8.5%, China 7.4% (2000)
Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Industrial production growth rate 6.2% (2001 est.)
Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Infant mortality rate 68.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.8% (2000 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Irrigated land 38,440 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 64.1 million (1998)

note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99 (1998)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY95/96)
Land boundaries total: 4,246 km

border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Land use arable land: 60.7%

permanent crops: 2.61%

other: 36.69% (1998 est.)
Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve five-year terms

elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 201, AL 62, JI 18, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 1, other 4; note - the election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 60.92 years

male: 61.08 years

female: 60.74 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 56%

male: 63%

female: 49% (2000 est.)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Map references Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 269,932 GRT/379,271 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 26, container 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, includes s foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 5 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $559 million (FY96/97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96/97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 37,303,372 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 22,139,736 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Nationality noun: Bangladeshi(s)

adjective: Bangladeshi
Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Net migration rate -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 1,250 km
Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [[Naziur Rahman MANZUR]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 133,376,684 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 36%
Population growth rate 1.59% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj (2001)
Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 6.15 million (1997)
Railways total: 2,745 km

broad gauge: 923 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2000 est.)
Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country

domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)
Telephones - main lines in use 500,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 283,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Total fertility rate 2.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 35% (2001 est.)
Waterways up to 8,046 km depending on season

note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes
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