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Bangladesh (2001)

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Bangladesh 2001 year

Administrative divisions 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet
Age structure 0-14 years:
35.04% (male 23,550,607; female 22,451,006)

15-64 years:
61.6% (male 41,432,123; female 39,434,633)

65 years and over:
3.36% (male 2,389,639; female 2,011,852) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Airports 18 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Area total:
144,000 sq km

133,910 sq km

10,090 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Background Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Birth rate 25.3 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$4.9 billion

$6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Capital Dhaka
Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Coastline 580 km
Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Country name conventional long form:
People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form:

East Pakistan
Currency taka (BDT)
Death rate 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $17 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS

Road 27, House 110, Banani, Dhaka

mailing address:
G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

[880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722

[880] (2) 8823744
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate A. Tariq KARIM

3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 244-0183

consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international a portion of the boundary with India is indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border with India subject to ratification by Indian parliament; dispute with India over South Talpatty/New Moore Island
Economic aid - recipient $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single most important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Even so, Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA's Awami League government has made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and liberalizing the capital markets. Progress on other economic reforms has been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.
Electricity - consumption 11.216 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 12.06 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Keokradong 1,230 m
Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally-occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)
Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 54.000 (January 2001), 52.142 (2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections

head of government:
Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 13 July 1996)

Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president

president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without opposition; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $5.9 billion (2000)
Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Exports - partners US 31.2%, Germany 9.95%, UK 8.06%, France 5.82%, Italy 4.42% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $203 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


52% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,570 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Highways total:
201,182 km

19,112 km

182,070 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
28.6% (1995-96 est.)
Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $8.1 billion (2000)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners India 12.2%, Singapore 7.8%, Japan 6.7%, China 6.4%, US 5.3% (1999)
Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Industrial production growth rate 6.1% (2000 est.)
Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Infant mortality rate 69.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Irrigated land 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 64.1 million (1998)

extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY95/96)
Land boundaries total:
4,246 km

border countries:
Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

5% (1993 est.)
Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad (330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year terms)

last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held before 13 October 2001)

election results:
percent of vote by party - AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%; seats by party - AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 3; note - the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to widespread street violence
Life expectancy at birth total population:
60.54 years

60.74 years

60.33 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


49% (2000 est.)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Map references Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
18 NM

continental shelf:
up to the outer limits of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,566 GRT/375,110 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 2, cargo 25, container 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps), Armed Police battalions
Military expenditures - dollar figure $559 million (FY96/97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96/97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
36,005,553 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
21,362,279 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Net migration rate -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 1,250 km
Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIAur Rahman]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Azizol HAQ]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 131,269,860 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 35.6% (FY95/96 est.)
Population growth rate 1.59% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj (2001)
Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 6.15 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,745 km

broad gauge:
923 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge:
1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2000)
Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.19 male(s)/female

total population:
1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
totally inadequate for a modern country

modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)
Telephones - main lines in use 500,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 283,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Total fertility rate 2.78 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 35.2% (1996)
Waterways up to 8,046 km depending on season

includes 3,058 km main cargo routes
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