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Bangladesh (2007)

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Bangladesh 2007 year

Administrative divisions 6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.1% (male 25,639,640/female 24,174,937)

15-64 years: 63.4% (male 48,659,087/female 46,712,687)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 2,818,638/female 2,443,350) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Airports 16 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 144,000 sq km

land: 133,910 sq km

water: 10,090 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Iowa
Background Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Birth rate 29.36 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $6.633 billion

expenditures: $9.34 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Dhaka

geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Coastline 580 km
Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh

local short form: Banladesh

former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
Death rate 8.13 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $19.59 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Geeta PASI

embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212

mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500

FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador M. Humayun KABIR

chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh resists India's attempts to fence or wall off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesh-India boundary inspection in 2005 revealed 92 pillars are missing; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; 21,000 Burmese Rohingya Muslim refugees reside in two camps in Bangladesh
Economic aid - recipient $1.321 billion (2005)
Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups also have blocked progress. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas. On an encouraging note, growth has been a steady 5-6% for the past several years.
Electricity - consumption 19.49 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 21.35 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 69.031 (2006), 64.328 (2005), 59.513 (2004), 58.15 (2003), 57.888 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002)

note: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as President and Minister of Defense, and all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister

elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election NA); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $11.16 billion (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)
Exports - partners US 25%, Germany 12.6%, UK 9.8%, France 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 19.7%

industry: 28%

services: 52.3% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.4% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Geography - note most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 27.9% (2000 est.)
Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $14.75 billion (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners China 17.7%, India 12.5%, Kuwait 7.9%, Singapore 5.5%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2006)
Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Industrial production growth rate 7.2% (2006 est.)
Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Infant mortality rate total: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 60.13 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 58.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.8% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 47,250 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 68 million

note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $4.8 billion in 2005-06. (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 63%

industry: 11%

services: 26% (FY95/96)
Land boundaries total: 4,246 km

border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Land use arable land: 55.39%

permanent crops: 3.08%

other: 41.53% (2005)
Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms

elections: last held 1 October 2001 (the scheduled January 2007 election has been postponed)

election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 41%, AL 40%, other 19%; seats by party - BNP 193, AL 58, JI 17, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Manzur) 4, other 12; note - the election of October 2001 brought to power a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - JI, IOJ, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 62.84 years

male: 62.81 years

female: 62.86 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 43.1%

male: 53.9%

female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Map references Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 328,530 GRT/468,509 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 27, container 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4

foreign-owned: 1 (China 1)

registered in other countries: 9 (Comoros 1, Honduras 1, Malta 3, Panama 1, Singapore 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Military branches Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2006)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Nationality noun: Bangladeshi(s)

adjective: Bangladeshi
Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Net migration rate -0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,604 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 150,448,339 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 45% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 2.056% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 15, FM 13, shortwave 2 (2006)
Railways total: 2,768 km

broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.061 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.042 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.154 male(s)/female

total population: 1.052 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country; fixed-line telephone density of less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 13 per 100 persons

domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.134 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 19.131 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Total fertility rate 3.09 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.5% (includes underemployment) (2006 est.)
Waterways 8,370 km

note: includes up to 3,060 km main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in dry season (2006)
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