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Angola (2006)

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Angola 2006 year

Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Age structure 0-14 years: 43.7% (male 2,678,185/female 2,625,933)

15-64 years: 53.5% (male 3,291,954/female 3,195,688)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 148,944/female 186,367) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Airports 244 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 31

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 213

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 30

914 to 1,523 m: 95

under 914 m: 81 (2006)
Area total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Angola is slowly rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold legislative elections in 2006.
Birth rate 45.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.5 billion

expenditures: $10 billion; including capital expenditures of $963 million (2005 est.)
Capital name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8 48 S, 13 14 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Coastline 1,600 km
Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - a new constitution will likely be passed following the next legislative election
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola
Death rate 24.2 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $9.401 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia EFIRD

embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda

mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda,US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000

FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITI

chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Disputes - international many Cabinda exclave secessionists have sought shelter in neighboring states
Economic aid - recipient $383.5 million (1999)
Economy - overview Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about half of GDP and 90% of exports. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004 and 19% growth in 2005. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for half of the population, but half of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects are scheduled for completion by 2006. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation, a policy that was more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings, and has significantly reduced inflation. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 18% in 2005, but the stabilization policy places pressure on international net liquidity. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. The government has made sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as promoting greater transparency in government spending but continues to be without a formal monitoring agreement with the institution.
Electricity - consumption 1.9 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 2.24 billion kWh (2004)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003), 43.53 (2002), 22.058 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September 2006 or 2007)

election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $26.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners US 39.8%, China 29.6%, France 7.8%, Chile 5.4%, Taiwan 4.4% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 9.6%

industry: 65.8%

services: 24.6% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 19.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Geography - note the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $8.165 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners South Korea 20.8%, Portugal 13.6%, US 12.7%, South Africa 7.5%, Brazil 5.6%, France 5.3%, China 5.1% (2005)
Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 13.5% (2004)
Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 185.36 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 197.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 172.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 23% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 800 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 5.58 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 85%

industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 5,198 km

border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Land use arable land: 2.65%

permanent crops: 0.23%

other: 97.12% (2005)
Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, other 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, other 7
Life expectancy at birth total population: 38.62 years

male: 37.47 years

female: 39.83 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 66.8%

male: 82.1%

female: 53.8% (2001 est.)
Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,343 GRT/4,643 DWT

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1

registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 5) (2006)
Military branches Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces (FANA) (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2 billion (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 8.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Nationality noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan
Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Net migration rate 3.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 235 km; liquid petroleum gas 122 km; oil 867 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]

note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and the other 115 smaller parties have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]

note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province has largely ended
Population 12,127,071 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 2.45% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Railways total: 2,761 km

narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2005)
Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links

domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 29; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia (2005)
Telephones - main lines in use 94,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,094,100 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Total fertility rate 6.35 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,300 km (2005)
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