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Angola (2004)

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Angola 2004 year

Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Age structure 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,410,326; female 2,363,368)

15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,998,892; female 2,897,837)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 137,340; female 170,789) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Airports 244 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 32

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 211

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 30

914 to 1,523 m: 95

under 914 m: 80 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Angola has begun to enjoy the fruits of peace since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold national elections in 2006.
Birth rate 45.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.874 billion

expenditures: $6.012 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (2003 est.)
Capital Luanda
Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Coastline 1,600 km
Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been approved
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola
Currency kwanza (AOA)
Death rate 25.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $9.164 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL

embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda

mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224

FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI

chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
Disputes - international continues to give shelter to refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while many Angolan refugees and Cabinda exclave secessionists reside in neighboring states
Economic aid - recipient $383.5 million (1999)
Economy - overview Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production supported 7% GDP growth in 2003.
Electricity - consumption 1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 74.6063 (2003), 43.5302 (2002), 22.0579 (2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)

election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $9.669 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners US 47.7%, China 23.4%, Taiwan 8%, France 7.4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
GDP purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8%

industry: 67%

services: 25% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Geography - note the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Highways total: 51,429 km

paved: 5,349 km

unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $4.08 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners Portugal 18.2%, South Africa 12.4%, US 12.2%, Netherlands 11.6%, France 6.5%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.2% (2003)
Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 1% (2000)
Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 192.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 204.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 179.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 76.6% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 5.57 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 5,198 km

border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Land use arable land: 2.41%

permanent crops: 0.24%

other: 97.35% (2001)
Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Life expectancy at birth total population: 36.79 years

male: 36.06 years

female: 37.55 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42%

male: 56%

female: 28% (1998 est.)
Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT

by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1

registered in other countries: 4 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces (FANA)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $265.1 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,620,219 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,317,328 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 113,103 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Nationality noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan
Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]

note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]

note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
Population 10,978,552 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 1.93% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe (Mocamedes), Porto Amboim, Soyo
Radio broadcast stations AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Railways total: 2,761 km

narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2003)
Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links

domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Telephones - main lines in use 96,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 130,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Total fertility rate 6.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,300 km (2004)
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