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Angola (2001)

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Angola 2001 year

Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Age structure 0-14 years:
43.31% (male 2,266,870; female 2,222,262)

15-64 years:
53.98% (male 2,847,089; female 2,748,091)

65 years and over:
2.71% (male 127,798; female 153,921) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Airports 247 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
83 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1,246,700 sq km

1,246,700 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century.
Birth rate 46.54 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$928 million

$2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)
Capital Luanda
Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Coastline 1,600 km
Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Angola

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica de Angola

local short form:

People's Republic of Angola
Currency kwanza (AOA)
Death rate 24.68 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $10.8 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN

number 32 Rua Houari Boumeddienne, Luanda

mailing address:
international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550

[244] (2) 345-481, 346-418

[244] (2) 346-924
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI

1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 785-1156

[1] (202) 785-1258

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $493.1 million (1995)
Economy - overview Angola is an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports. Violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to end its conflict and continue reforming government policies. Despite the increase in the pace of civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew by an estimated 5% in 2000. The government introduced new currency denominations in 1999, including 1 and 5 kwanza notes. Internal strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector, which is producing roughly 800,000 barrels of oil per day. Angola has entered into a Staff Monitored Program (SMP) with the IMF. Continued growth depends on sharp cuts in inflation, further economic reform, and a lessening of fighting.
Electricity - consumption 1.372 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 1.475 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 17,910,800 (January 2001), 10,041,000 (2000), 2,790,706 (1999), 392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997), 128,029 (1996); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Executive branch chief of state:
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)

election results:
DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $7.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners US 54%, South Korea 14%, Benelux 11%, China 7%, Taiwan 6% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
GDP purchasing power parity - $10.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


33% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.9% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Geography - note Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Highways total:
76,626 km

19,156 km

57,470 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners South Korea 16%, Portugal 15%, US 13%, South Africa 10%, France 8% (1999)
Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Infant mortality rate 193.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 325% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 750 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 5 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total:
5,198 km

border countries:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

32% (1993 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)

election results:
percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Life expectancy at birth total population:
38.59 years

37.36 years

39.87 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


28% (1998 est.)
Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305 GRT/63,067 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.2 billion (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 22% (1999)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,480,016 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,246,224 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
103,807 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Net migration rate -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 179 km
Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]; UNITA-Renovada [Eugenio NGOLO "Manuvakola", leader]

about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]

FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
Population 10,366,031 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.15% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo
Radio broadcast stations AM 34, FM 7, shortwave 9 (1999)
Radios 630,000 (1997)
Railways total:
2,771 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because of land mines still in place from the civil war)

narrow gauge:
2,648 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2000)
Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.83 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links

limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 62,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 7,052 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 7 (1999)
Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Total fertility rate 6.48 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2000 est.)
Waterways 1,295 km
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