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Ukraina (2008)

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Ukraina 2008 roku

 Ukraina
Podzial administracyjny 24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) z oblast status**; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k, Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad, Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14% (male 3,334,428/female 3,163,378)


15-64 years: 69.6% (male 15,465,544/female 16,769,495)


65 years and over: 16.3% (male 2,564,512/female 5,002,505) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Lotniska 437 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 193


over 3,047 m: 13


2,438 to 3,047 m: 53


1,524 to 2,437 m: 27


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 95 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 244


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 11


914 to 1,523 m: 13


under 914 m: 217 (2007)
Terytorium total: 603,700 sq km


land: 603,700 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Texas
Tlo historyczne Ukraina was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state w Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Litwa and eventually into the Polish-Litwan Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation dla Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous dla well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Rosjan Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Rosja w 1917, Ukraina was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) w which over 8 million died. In Swiat War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible dla some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence dla Ukraina was achieved w 1991 z the dissolution of the USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" w the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles w the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback w parliamentary elections and become prime minister w sierpien of 2006. An early legislative election, brought on by a political crisis w the spring of 2007, saw Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, as head of an "Orange" coalition, installed as a new prime minister w grudzien 2007.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $44.63 billion


expenditures: $46.98 billion; note - this is the planned, consolidated budget (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Kyiv (Kiev)


geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest w west and north, lesser w east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot w the south
Linia brzegowa 2,782 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1996
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Ukraina


local long form: none


local short form: Ukrayina


former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 16.07 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $65.38 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William B. TAYLOR Jr.


embassy: 10 Yurii Kotsiubynsky Street, 04053 Kyiv


mailing address: 5850 Kiev Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850


telephone: [380] (44) 490-4000


FAX: [380] (44) 490-4085
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Oleh V. SHAMSHUR


chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606


FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817


consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje 1997 boundary delimitation treaty z Bialorus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary z Rosja is complete z preparations dla demarcation underway; the dispute over the boundary between Rosja and Ukraina through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and ongoing expert-level discussions; Moldawia and Ukraina operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldawia's break-away Transnistria Region, which remains under OSCE supervision; the ICJ gave Ukraina until grudzien 2006 to reply, and Rumunia until czerwiec 2007 to rejoin, w their dispute submitted w 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary; Rumunia opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraina to the Black Sea
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $409.6 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (2005)
Ekonomia After Rosja, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) w other regions of the former USSR. Shortly after independence was ratified w grudzien 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework dla privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Ukraina's dependence on Rosja dla energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Ukraina depends on imports to meet about three-fourths of its annual oil and natural gas requirements. A dispute z Rosja over pricing w late 2005 and early 2006 led to a temporary gas cut-off; Ukraina concluded a deal z Rosja w styczen 2006 that almost doubled the price Ukraina pays dla Rosjan gas. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF - have encouraged Ukraina to quicken the pace and scope of reforms. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges w a marzec 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraina's large shadow economy, but more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework. Ukraina's economy remains buoyant despite political turmoil between the Prime Minister and President. Real Produkt krajowy brutto growth reached about 7% w 2006-07, fueled by high global prices dla steel - Ukraina's top export - and by strong domestic consumption, spurred by rising pensions and wages. Although the economy is likely to expand w 2008, long-term growth could be threatened by the government's plans to reinstate tax, trade, and customs privileges and to maintain restrictive grain export quotas.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 181.9 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.07 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 20 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 192.1 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Black Sea 0 m


highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination w the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Grupy etniczne Ukrainian 77.8%, Rosjan 17.3%, Bialorusian 0.6%, Moldawian 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Rumunian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty hryvnia per US dollar - 5.05 (2007), 5.05 (2006), 5.1247 (2005), 5.3192 (2004), 5.3327 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO (since 23 styczen 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (since 18 grudzien 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister Oleksandr TURCHYNOV (since 18 grudzien 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Hryhoriy NEMYRYA and Ivan VASYUNYK (since 18 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers selected by the prime minister; the only exceptions are the foreign and defense ministers, who are chosen by the president


note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created w 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked z developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Secretariat helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); note - a special repeat runoff presidential election between Viktor YUSHCHENKO and Viktor YANUKOVYCH took place on 26 grudzien 2004 after the earlier 21 listopad 2004 contest - won by YANUKOVYCH - was invalidated by the Ukrainian Supreme Court because of widespread and significant violations; under constitutional reforms that went into effect 1 styczen 2006, the majority w parliament takes the lead w naming the prime minister


election results: Viktor YUSHCHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Viktor YUSHCHENKO 51.99%, Viktor YANUKOVYCH 44.2%
Eksport 10.07 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $46.68 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 4 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 214,600 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Eksport - partnerzy Rosja 21.3%, Turcja 7.1%, Wlochy 6.4%, US 4.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 9.2%


industry: 32.6%


services: 58.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 49 00 N, 32 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country w Europe
Ladowiska helikopterow 10 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.4%


highest 10%: 25.7% (2006)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly dla CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production dla export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point dla opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turcja to Europe and Rosja; Ukraina has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting w its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List w luty 2004; Ukraina's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Import 20 billion kWh (2006)
Import $54.3 billion (2007 est.)
Import 57.09 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Import 469,600 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Rosja 28.2%, Niemcy 11.7%, Polska 7.6%, Chiny 7%, Turkmenistan 5.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 24 sierpien 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 11.75 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 7.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 11.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Nawadniane tereny 22,080 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court
Sila robocza 21.63 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 25%


industry: 20%


services: 55% (1996)
Granica total: 4,663 km


border countries: Bialorus 891 km, Wegry 103 km, Moldawia 939 km, Polska 526 km, Rumunia (south) 169 km, Rumunia (west) 362 km, Rosja 1,576 km, Slowacja 97 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 53.8%


permanent crops: 1.5%


other: 44.7% (2005)
Jezyki Ukrainian (official) 67%, Rosjan 24%, other 9% (includes small Rumunian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities)
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; members allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 3% or more of the national electoral vote; to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 30 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: percent of vote by party/bloc - Party of Regions 34.4%, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 30.7%, Our Ukraina-People's Self Defense 14.2%, CPU 5.4%, Lytvyn bloc 4%, other parties 11.3%; seats by party/bloc - Party of Regions 175, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 156, Our Ukraina-People's Self Defense 72, CPU 27, Lytvyn bloc 20
Zywotnosc total population: 67.88 years


male: 62.16 years


female: 73.96 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.4%


male: 99.7%


female: 99.2% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Polska, Rumunia, and Moldawia w the west and Rosja w the east
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia, Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 193 ships (1000 GRT or over) 763,293 GRT/899,859 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 145, container 3, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, specialized tanker 2


registered w other countries: 194 (Belize 10, Kambodza 27, Komory 13, Cypr 6, Dominika 3, Georgia 24, Liberia 24, Malta 28, Moldawia 3, Mongolia 3, Panama 8, Rosja 10, Sierra Leone 8, Slowacja 10, St Kitts and Nevis 5, St Vincent and The Grenadines 12, unknown 3) (2007)
Wojsko Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (Viyskovo-Povitryani Syly), Air Defense Forces (2002)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 sierpien (1991); note - 22 styczen 1918, the day Ukraina first declared its independence (from Soviet Rosja) and the day the short-lived Western and Central Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Narodowosc noun: Ukrainian(s)


adjective: Ukrainian
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 33,721 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,211 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Christian Democratic Union [Volodymyr STRETOVYCH]; Communist Party of Ukraina or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; European Party of Ukraina [Mykola KATERYNCHUK]; Fatherland Party (Batkivshchyna) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Forward Ukraina! [Viktor MUSIYAKA]; Labor Party of Ukraina [Mykola SYROTA]; People's Union Our Ukraina [Vyacheslav KYRYLENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; Party of the Defenders of the Fatherland [Yuriy Karmazin]; People's Movement of Ukraina (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; PORA! (It's Time!) party [Vladyslav KASKIV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Party of Regions [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Republican Party [Yuriy BOYKO]; Sobor [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO]; Social Democratic Party [Yevhen KORNICHUK]; Social Democratic Party (United) or SDPU(o) [Yuriy ZAHORODNIY]; Socialist Party of Ukraina or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; Viche [Inna BOHOSLOVSKA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Committee of Voters of Ukraina [Ihor POPOV]; Peoples' Self-Defense [Yuriy LUTSENKO]
Ludnosc 46,299,862 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 37.7% (2003)
Przyrost naturalny -0.675% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe 524 (station types NA) (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 22,473 km


broad gauge: 22,473 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 19%, Orthodox (no particular jurisdiction) 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38% (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.922 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.513 male(s)/female


total population: 0.857 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Ukraina's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system


domestic: at independence w grudzien 1991, Ukraina inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and w disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications dla telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising and the domestic trunk system is being improved; about one-third of Ukraina's networks are digital and a majority of regional centers now have digital switching stations; improvements w local networks and local exchanges continue to lag; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding rapidly


international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed w the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Wlochy-Turcja-Ukraina-Rosja (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations w the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 12.341 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 49.076 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 647 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu most of Ukraina consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only w the west (the Carpathians), and w the Crimean Peninsula w the extreme south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.24 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 2.5% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers; the International Labor Organization calculates that Ukraina's real unemployment level is nearly 7% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,253 km (most on Dnieper River) (2006)
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