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Ukraine (2001)

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Ukraine 2001 year

Administrative divisions 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr); note - when using a place name with an adjectival ending 's'ka' or 'z'ka,' the word Oblast' should be added to the place name

oblasts have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years:
17.3% (male 4,310,158; female 4,127,677)

15-64 years:
68.57% (male 15,965,079; female 17,468,035)

65 years and over:
14.13% (male 2,275,004; female 4,614,521) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Airports 718 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
26 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
457 (2000 est.)
Area total:
603,700 sq km

603,700 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Background Richly endowed in natural resources, Ukraine has been fought over and subjugated for centuries; its 20th-century struggle for liberty is not yet complete. A short-lived independence from Russia (1917-1920) was followed by brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died, and World War II, in which German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 million more deaths. Although independence was attained in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, true freedom remains elusive as many of the former Soviet elite remain entrenched, stalling efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civic liberties.
Birth rate 9.31 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$8.3 billion

$8.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Kiev (Kyyiv)
Climate temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Coastline 2,782 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1996
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:

local long form:

local short form:

Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency hryvnia (UAH)
Death rate 16.43 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $10.3 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Carlos PASCUAL

10 Yuria Kotsubynskoho, 254053 Kiev 53

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[380] (44) 490-4000

[380] (44) 244-7350
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Konstantin Ivanovych HRYSHCHENKO

3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 333-0606

[1] (202) 333-0817

consulate(s) general:
Chicago and New York
Disputes - international has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation
Economic aid - recipient $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
Economy - overview After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR. Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas, to meet some 85% of its annual energy requirements. Shortly after independence in late 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output in 1992-99 fell to less than 40% the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Now in his second term, President KUCHMA has pledged to reduce the number of government agencies and streamline the regulation process, create a legal environment to encourage entrepreneurs and protect ownership rights, and enact a comprehensive tax overhaul. Reforms in the more politically sensitive areas of structural reform and land privatization are still lagging. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms and have threatened to withdraw financial support. GDP in 2000 showed strong export-based growth of 6% - the first growth since independence - and industrial production grew 12.9%. As the capacity for further export-based economic expansion diminishes, GDP growth in 2001 is likely to decline to around 3%.
Electricity - consumption 146.675 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 2.3 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 2.2 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 157.823 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.01% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Black Sea 0 m

highest point:
Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%
Exchange rates hryvnia per US dollar - 5.4331 (January 2001), 5.4402 (2000), 4.1304 (1999), 2.4495 (1998), 1.8617 (1997), 1.8295 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)

head of government:
Prime Minister Anatoliy KINAKH (since 29 May 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Oleh DUBYNA (since 29 May 2001)

Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council

there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council, but significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president; and a Council of Regions that serves as an advisory body created by President KUCHMA in September 1994 that includes chairmen of the Kyyiv (Kiev) and Sevastopol' municipalities and chairmen of the oblasti

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council

election results:
Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of vote - Leonid KUCHMA 57.7%, Petro SYMONENKO 38.8%
Exports 2.3 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $14.6 billion (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Exports - partners Russia 24%, Europe 30%, US 5% (2000 est.)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky
GDP purchasing power parity - $189.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


62% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,850 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 00 N, 32 00 E
Geography - note strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe
Highways total:
273,700 km

236,400 km (including 1,770 km of expressways); note - (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

37,300 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
26.4% (1996)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey, and to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but growing, problem
Imports 2.2 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $15 billion (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners Russia 42%, Europe 29%, US 3% (2000 est.)
Independence 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 12.9% (2000 est.)
Industries coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
Infant mortality rate 21.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 25.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 32 (2000)
Irrigated land 26,050 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Labor force 22.8 million (yearend 1997)
Labor force - by occupation industry 32%, agriculture 24%, services 44% (1996)
Land boundaries total:
4,558 km

border countries:
Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

9% (1993 est.)
Languages Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
Legal system based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; under Ukraine's new election law, half of the Supreme Council's seats are allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 4% or more of the national electoral vote; the other 225 members are elected by popular vote in single-mandate constituencies; all serve four-year terms)

last held 29 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party (for parties clearing 4% hurdle on 29 March 1998) - Communist Party 24.7%, Rukh (combined) 9.4%, SPU/SelPU 8.6%, PZU 5.3%, People's Democratic Party 5.0%, Hromada Party 4.7%, Progressive Socialist Party 4.0%, United Social Democratic Party 4.0%; seats by party (as of 25 February 2000) - Communist Party 115, PRVU 36, Fatherland Party 35, United Social Democratic Party 34, People's Democratic Party 27, Trudova Ukrayina Party 27, Rukh K 27, left-center 23, PZU 18, Rukh U 17, SelPU 15, Hromada Party 14, Reforms-Congress 12, independents 14, unaffiliated 31, vacant 5
Life expectancy at birth total population:
66.15 years

60.62 years

71.96 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


97% (1989 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia
Map references Commonwealth of Independent States
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200-m or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
156 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 757,582 GRT/841,755 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 8, cargo 110, container 3, liquefied gas 2, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 14, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Internal Troops, Border Troops
Military expenditures - dollar figure $500 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
12,285,623 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
9,630,184 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
390,823 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum products 4,500 km (1995); natural gas 34,400 km (1998)
Political parties and leaders Communist Party of Ukraine [Petro SYMONENKO]; Fatherland (Motherland) All Ukrainian Party [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, chairperson]; Green Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy KONONOV, chairman]; Hromada [Pavlo LAZARENKO]; Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine or PRVU [Volodymyr RYBAK]; Peasant Party of Ukraine or SelPU [Serhiy DOVHAN]; People's Democratic Party [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman]; People's Movement of Ukraine or Rukh U [Hennadiy UDOVENKO, chairman]; Progressive Socialist Party [Nataliya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party/Reforms-Congress [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Solidarity [leader NA]; Trudova Ukrayina/Working Ukraine [Igor SHAROV, chairman]; Ukrainian Popular Movement or Rukh K [Yuriy KOSTENKO, chairman]; United Social Democratic Party of Ukraine [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]

and numerous smaller parties
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 48,760,474 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate -0.78% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Sevastopol'
Radio broadcast stations AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 45.05 million (1997)
Railways total:
23,350 km

broad gauge:
23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)
Religions Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.49 male(s)/female

total population:
0.86 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
Ukraine's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system

at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate

two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project which connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Telephones - main lines in use 9.45 million (April 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 236,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations at least 33 (plus 21 repeaters that relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
Terrain most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Total fertility rate 1.29 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.3% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1999)
Waterways 4,499 km

(1,672 km are on the Pryp'yat' and Dnistr) (1990)
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