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Tunezja (2008)

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Tunezja 2008 roku

 Tunezja
Podzial administracyjny 24 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah), Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24% (male 1,270,208/female 1,191,619)


15-64 years: 69.2% (male 3,571,228/female 3,538,458)


65 years and over: 6.9% (male 333,801/female 370,844) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
Lotniska 30 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 14


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 6


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 16


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Terytorium total: 163,610 sq km


land: 155,360 sq km


water: 8,250 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Georgia
Tlo historyczne Rivalry between French and Italian interests w Tunezja culminated w a French invasion w 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation dla independence w the decades following Swiat War I was finally successful w getting the French to recognize Tunezja as an independent state w 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country dla 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights dla women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In listopad 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI w a bloodless coup. BEN ALI is currently serving his fourth consecutive five-year term as president; the next elections are scheduled dla pazdziernik 2009. Tunezja has long taken a moderate, non-aligned stance w its foreign relations. Domestically, it has sought to defuse rising pressure dla a more open political society.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $8.355 billion


expenditures: $9.476 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tunis


geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate w north z mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert w south
Linia brzegowa 1,148 km
Konstytucja 1 czerwiec 1959; amended 1988, 2002
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Tunezjan Republic


conventional short form: Tunezja


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah


local short form: Tunis
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $18.56 billion (grudzien 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC


embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [216] 71 107-000


FAX: [216] 71 107-090
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Nejib HACHANA


chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005


telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850


FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $376.5 million (2005)
Ekonomia Tunezja has a diverse economy, z important agricultural, mining, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade z increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Progressive social policies also have helped raise living conditions w Tunezja relative to the region. Real growth, which averaged almost 5% over the past decade, reached 6.3% w 2007 because of development w non-textile manufacturing, a recovery w agricultural production, and strong growth w the services sector. However, Tunezja will need to reach even higher growth levels to create sufficient employment opportunities dla an already large number of unemployed as well as the growing population of university graduates. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, improvements w government efficiency, and reduction of the trade deficit are among the challenges ahead.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 11.17 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 12.85 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m


highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Kurs waluty Tunezjan dinars per US dollar - 1.2776 (2007), 1.331 (2006), 1.2974 (2005), 1.2455 (2004), 1.2885 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 listopad 1987)


head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 listopad 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected dla a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $14.81 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 75,060 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 28.9%, Wlochy 20.4%, Niemcy 8.6%, Hiszpania 6.1%, Libia 4.9%, US 4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a white disk w the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.5%


industry: 30%


services: 58.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 34 00 N, 9 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location w central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunezja are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly dla oil exploration
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.3%


highest 10%: 31.5% (2000)
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $17.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 1.726 billion cu m (2005)
Import 85,680 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Francja 25%, Wlochy 21.9%, Niemcy 9.7%, Hiszpania 4.9% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 20 marzec 1956 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.94 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 25.75 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC (suspended), OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 3,940 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
Sila robocza 3.591 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 55%


industry: 23%


services: 22% (1995 est.)
Granica total: 1,424 km


border countries: Algieria 965 km, Libia 459 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 17.05%


permanent crops: 13.08%


other: 69.87% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
System prawny based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court w joint session; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral system consists of the Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab (189 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Advisors (126 seats; 85 members elected by municipal counselors, deputies, mayors, and professional associations and trade unions; 41 members are presidential appointees; members serve six-year terms)


elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2009); Chamber of Advisors - last held on 3 lipiec 2005 (next to be held w lipiec 2011)


election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 152, MDS 14, PUP 11, UDU 7, Al-Tajdid 3, PSL 2; Chamber of Advisors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 71 (14 trade union seats vacant (boycotted))
Zywotnosc total population: 75.34 years


male: 73.6 years


female: 77.21 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 74.3%


male: 83.4%


female: 65.3% (2004 census)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algieria and Libia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Flota handlowa total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 130,475 GRT/91,013 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 1, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 4


foreign-owned: 1 (Libia 1) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Republic of Tunezja Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'tunisia) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 20 marzec (1956); also the anniversary of BEN ALI's assumption of the presidency, 7 listopad (1987)
Narodowosc noun: Tunezjan(s)


adjective: Tunezjan
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,665 km; oil 1,235 km; refined products 353 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Al-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]; Konstytucjaal Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Konstytucjanel Democratique) or RCD (official ruling party) [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI]; Democratic Forum dla Labor and Liberties or FDTL [Mustapha Ben JAFAAR]; Green Party dla Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Maya JERIBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow 18 pazdziernik Group [collective leadership]; Tunezjan League dla Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; note - the Islamist Party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
Ludnosc 10,276,158 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 7.4% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.989% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 38, shortwave 2 (2007)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,153 km


standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 1,674 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified)


dual gauge: 8 km 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (three rails) (2006)
Religie Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.066 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.009 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female


total population: 1.015 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal except dla active government security forces (including the police and the military), people z mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months w prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
System telefoniczny general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available


domestic: w an effort jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network z international connectivity; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted w lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge w subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 85 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 216; a landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria and Libia; participant w Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.268 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 7.339 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mountains w north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 13.9% (2007 est.)
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