Main page Compare countries Index countries Index fields


Tunisia (2001)

Tunisia - select year:
TunisiaTunisia (2002) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2003) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2004) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2005) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2006) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2007) (compare)
TunisiaTunisia (2008) (compare)

Compare with other popular countries

Tunisia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 23 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah), Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), El Kef (Al Kaf), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
Age structure 0-14 years:
28.74% (male 1,440,636; female 1,348,133)

15-64 years:
65.12% (male 3,157,988; female 3,161,596)

65 years and over:
6.14% (male 296,930; female 299,819) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products olives, olive oil, grain, dairy products, tomatoes, citrus fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates, almonds
Airports 32 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
7 (2000 est.)
Area total:
163,610 sq km

155,360 sq km

8,250 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Georgia
Background Following independence from France in 1956, President Habib BOURGIUBA established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In recent years, Tunisia has taken a moderate, non-aligned stance in its foreign relations. Domestically, it has sought to diffuse rising pressure for a more open political society.
Birth rate 17.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$7.5 billion

$8.1 billion, including capital expenditures to $1.6 billion (2000 est.)
Capital Tunis
Climate temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Coastline 1,148 km
Constitution 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Tunisia

conventional short form:

local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah

local short form:
Currency Tunisian dinar (TND)
Death rate 4.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $13 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Rust DEMMING

144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[216] (1) 782-566

[216] (1) 789-719
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Hatem ATALLAH

1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005

[1] (202) 862-1850
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $933.2 million (1995); note - ODA, $90 million (1998 est.)
Economy - overview Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Real growth averaged 5.5% in the past four years, and inflation is slowing. Growth in tourism and increased trade have been key elements in this steady growth. Tunisia's association agreement with the European Union entered into force on 1 March 1998, the first such accord between the EU and Mediterranean countries to be activated. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers to trade with the EU over the next decade. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, and improvements in government efficiency are among the challenges for the future.
Electricity - consumption 8.677 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 19 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 165 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 9.173 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Shatt al Gharsah -17 m

highest point:
Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
Environment - current issues toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Exchange rates Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.3753 (January 2001), 1.4667 (November 2000), 1.1862 (1999), 1.1387 (1998), 1.1059 (1997), 0.9734 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 November 1999)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a third term without opposition; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI nearly 100%
Exports 19 million kWh (1999)
Exports $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities textiles, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, agricultural products, hydrocarbons
Exports - partners Germany 28%, France 22%, Italy 17%, Belgium 5%, Libya 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $62.8 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


54% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 34 00 N, 9 00 E
Geography - note strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
Highways total:
23,100 km

18,226 km

4,874 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
30.7% (1990)
Imports 165 million kWh (1999)
Imports $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, food
Imports - partners France 23%, Germany 23%, Italy 15%, Belgium 3% (1999)
Independence 20 March 1956 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 4.1% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages
Infant mortality rate 29.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, BSEC (observer), CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 3,850 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
Labor force 2.65 million (2000 est.)

shortage of skilled labor
Labor force - by occupation services 55%, industry 23%, agriculture 22% (1995 est.)
Land boundaries total:
1,424 km

border countries:
Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

44% (1993 est.)
Languages Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
Legal system based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab (182 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - RCD 92%; seats by party - RCD 148, MDS 13, UDU 7, PUP 7, Al-Tajdid 5, PSL 2; note - reforms enabled opposition parties to win up to 20% of seats; the opposition increased number of seats from 19 to 34
Life expectancy at birth total population:
73.92 years

72.35 years

75.62 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


54.6% (1995 est.)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 149,554 GRT/156,861 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 2, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $356 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,739,566 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,561,484 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
105,146 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 20 March (1956)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Net migration rate -0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742 km
Political parties and leaders Al-Tajdid Movement [Adel CHAOUCH]; Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Constitutionnel Democratique) or RCD [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (official ruling party)]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of Democratic Socialists or MDS [Khamis CHAMMARI]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed Belhaj AMOR]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Abderrahmane TLILI]
Political pressure groups and leaders the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
Population 9,705,102 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 6% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.15% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, Zarzis
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 20, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 2.06 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,168 km

standard gauge:
471 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
1,687 km 1.000-m gauge

dual gauge:
10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges (three rails)
Religions Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.99 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available

trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay

5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches
Telephones - main lines in use 654,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 50,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Total fertility rate 1.99 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 15.6% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
Sitemap: Compare countries listing (map site) | Country listing (map site)
Links: Add to favorites | Information about this website | Stats | Polityka prywatnosci
This page was generated in ##czas## s. Size this page: ##rozmiar_strony## kB.