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Tonga (2002)

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Tonga 2002 year

Administrative divisions 3 island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.5% (male 21,374; female 20,555)

15-64 years: 56.4% (male 29,519; female 30,322)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,945; female 2,422) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
Airports 6 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 748 sq km

land: 718 sq km

water: 30 sq km
Area - comparative four times the size of Washington, DC
Background The archipelago of "The Friendly Islands" was united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. It became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900. Tonga acquired its independence in 1970 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.
Birth rate 24.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $39.9 million

expenditures: $52.4 million, including capital expenditures of $1.9 million (FY99/00 est.)
Capital Nuku'alofa
Climate tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Coastline 419 km
Constitution 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga

conventional short form: Tonga

former: Friendly Islands
Currency pa'anga (TOP)
Death rate 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $57.5 million (June 2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sonatane T. T. TUPOU

chancery: 250 East 51st Street, New York, NY 10022

telephone: [1] (917) 369-1136

FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024

consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient Australia $5.5 million, New Zealand $2.3 million (FY01/02)
Economy - overview Tonga has a small, open economy with a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. Tourism is the second largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonable basic infrastructure and well-developed social services.
Electricity - consumption 27.9 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 30 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m
Environment - current issues deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Polynesian, Europeans about 300
Exchange rates pa'anga per US dollar - 2.1920 (January 2002), 2.1236 (2001), 1.7585 (2000), 1.5991 (1999), 1.4920 (1998), 1.2635 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)

head of government: Prime Minister Prince Lavaka ata ULUKALALA (since NA February 2000) and Deputy Prime Minister Tevita TOPOU (since NA January 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet, appointed by the monarch, consists of 12 members

note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the Cabinet, and two governors

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed for life by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $9.3 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners Japan 50.4%, US 31.6%, NZ 4.1%, Australia 2.1%, Fiji 1.7% (2000 est.)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
GDP purchasing power parity - $225 million (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30%

industry: 10%

services: 60% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 175 00 W
Geography - note archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
Highways total: 680 km

paved: 184 km

unpaved: 496 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $70 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners New Zealand 29.8%, Japan 18.6%, Australia 12.7%, US 12.7%, Fiji 12.2% (2000 est.)
Independence 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
Industrial production growth rate 8.6% (FY98/99)
Industries tourism, fishing
Infant mortality rate 13.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.4% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (consists of the Privy Council with the addition of the chief justice of the Supreme Court)
Labor force 33,908 (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 65% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 23.61%

permanent crops: 43.06%

other: 33.33% (1998 est.)
Languages Tongan, English
Legal system based on English law
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (30 seats - 12 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, nine for nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and nine elected by popular vote; members serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 7 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote - pro-democratic 70%; seats - pro-democratic 7, traditionalist 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.56 years

male: 66.13 years

female: 71.11 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English

total population: 98.5%

male: 98.4%

female: 98.7% (1996 est.)
Location Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 292,139 GRT/421,221 DWT

ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 54, liquefied gas 4, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 4

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 1, Australia 4, Austria 1, Bolivia 1, Cyprus 1, Djibouti 1, Egypt 2, Greece 4, Lebanon 2, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 2, Morocco 1, Norway 1, Panama 1, Romania 3, Russia 1, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 2, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 3, Syria 5, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 16, United States 4 (2002 est.)
Military branches Tonga Defense Services (made up of three operational command components and two support elements, including the Royal Marines, Royal Guards, Maritime Force, a support/logistics group, and a training group), Police; note - a new air wing that will be subordinate to the Ministry of Defense is being developed
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
National holiday Independence Day, 4 June (1970)
Nationality noun: Tongan(s)

adjective: Tongan
Natural hazards cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
Natural resources fish, fertile soil
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders there are no political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [Akilisi POHIVA, president]
Population 106,137 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.85% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Neiafu, Nuku'alofa, Pangai
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios 61,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (1996)
Telephones - main lines in use 8,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 302 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2001)
Terrain most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Total fertility rate 3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 13.3% (1996 est.)
Waterways none
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