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Sweden (2002)

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Sweden 2002 year

Administrative divisions 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Age structure 0-14 years: 18% (male 817,688; female 776,018)

15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,922,095; female 2,824,770)

65 years and over: 17.3% (male 651,120; female 885,053) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Airports 255 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 145

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 82

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 25 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 100

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 90 (2002)
Area total: 449,964 sq km

land: 410,934 sq km

water: 39,030 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment, rising maintenance costs, and a declining position in world markets. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
Birth rate 9.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $119 billion

expenditures: $110 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Stockholm
Climate temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Coastline 3,218 km
Constitution 1 January 1975
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige
Currency Swedish krona (SEK)
Death rate 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $66.5 billion (1994) (1994)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles A. HEIMBOLD, Jr.

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm

mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)

telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00

FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jan ELIASSON

chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702

telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600

FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.7 billion (1997) (1997)
Economy - overview Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, revenue declines, and spending increases. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) is focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth should pick up to 2.3% in 2003, assuming a moderate global recovery.
Electricity - consumption 139.18 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 13.628 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 18.306 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 144.62 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 6%

hydro: 54%

nuclear: 37%

other: 3% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Environment - current issues acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Exchange rates Swedish kronor per US dollar - 10.4381 (January 2002), 10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999), 7.9499 (1998), 7.6349 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the Parliament; election last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)

election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes
Exports 13.628 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $80.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners EU 54.6% (Germany 10.6%, UK 8.8%, Denmark 6.1%, Finland 5.7%), US 10.5%, Norway 8.6% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
GDP purchasing power parity - $227.4 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2%

industry: 29%

services: 69% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.8% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 62 00 N, 15 00 E
Geography - note strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 210,760 km

paved: 162,707 km (including 1,428 km of expressways)

unpaved: 48,053 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 20% (1992) (1992)
Imports 18.306 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $68.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners EU 66.3% (Germany 17.8%, UK 8.7%, Denmark 8.2%, Netherlands 6.9%, France 6.5%), Norway 8.5%, US 6.7% (2001)
Independence 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
Industrial production growth rate 0.9% (2002 est.)
Industries iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Infant mortality rate 3.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.2% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 29 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Labor force 4.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,205 km

border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km
Land use arable land: 6.8%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 93.2% (1998 est.)
Languages Swedish

note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Legal system civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 39.8%, Moderates 15.2%, Liberal Party 13.3%, Christian Democrats 9.1%, Left Party 8.3%, Center Party 6.1%, Greens 4.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 144, Moderates 55, Liberal Party 48, Christian Democrats 33, Left Party 30, Center Party 22, Greens 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.84 years

male: 77.19 years

female: 82.64 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1979 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

territorial sea: 12 NM (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
Merchant marine total: 174 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,255,344 GRT/1,609,844 DWT

ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 37, chemical tanker 33, combination ore/oil 4, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 27, railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 38, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 18

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 8, Finland 8, Germany 3, Italy 3, Japan 2, Norway 7 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Royal Navy (including Coast Artillery and Naval Helicopter Service), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4,395.1 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.1% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,060,205 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,800,991 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age NA
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 51,506 (2002 est.)
National holiday Flag Day, 6 June
Nationality noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish
Natural hazards ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Natural resources zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower
Net migration rate 0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 84 km
Political parties and leaders Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Bo LUNDGREN]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 8,876,744 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.02% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 8.25 million (1997)
Railways total: 12,821 km

standard gauge: 12,600 km 1.435-m gauge (7,918 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 221 km 0.891-m gauge (2001)
Religions Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Telephones - main lines in use 6.017 million (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3.835 million (October 1998)
Television broadcast stations 169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Total fertility rate 1.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 4% (2002 est.)
Waterways 2,052 km

note: navigable to small steamers and barges
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