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Svalbard (2005)

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Svalbard 2005 year

Age structure 0-14 years: NA

15-64 years: NA

65 years and over: NA
Airports 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 62,049 sq km

land: 62,049 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.
Birth rate NA births/1,000 population
Budget revenues: $11.5 million

expenditures: $11.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1998 est.)
Capital Longyearbyen
Climate arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Coastline 3,587 km
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population
Dependency status territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was awarded to Norway
Disputes - international despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
Economic aid - recipient $8.2 million from Norway (1998)
Economy - overview Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some hunting of seal, reindeer, and fox.
Elevation extremes lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Exchange rates Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 6.7408 (2004), 7.0802 (2003), 7.9838 (2002), 8.9917 (2001), 8.8018 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)

head of government: Governor Odd Olsen INGERO (since 8 June 2001) and Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since NA)

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
Exports $NA
Flag description the flag of Norway is used
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 78 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area
Highways total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km
Imports $NA
Independence none (territory of Norway)
Infant mortality rate total: NA

male: NA

female: NA
International organization participation none
Irrigated land NA sq km
Labor force NA
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry) (2001)
Languages Norwegian, Russian
Legal system NA
Life expectancy at birth total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years
Literacy NA
Location Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Map references Arctic Region
Maritime claims territorial sea: 4 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
Military - note demilitarized by treaty on 9 February 1920
National holiday NA
Natural hazards ice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Natural resources coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, phosphate, wildlife, fish
Net migration rate NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Population 2,701 (July 2005 est.)
Population growth rate -0.02% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Sex ratio NA%
Telephone system general assessment: probably adequate

domestic: local telephone service

international: country code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA
Terrain wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Total fertility rate NA children born/woman
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