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Svalbard (2001)

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Svalbard 2001 year

Age structure 0-14 years:

15-64 years:

65 years and over:
Airports 4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Area total:
62,049 sq km

62,049 sq km

0 sq km

includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.
Birth rate NA births/1,000 population
Budget revenues:
$11.5 million

$11.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Longyearbyen
Climate arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Coastline 3,587 km
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:
Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population
Dependency status territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Disputes - international focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Economic aid - recipient $8.2 million from Norway (1998)
Economy - overview Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Electricity - production NA kWh
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



Elevation extremes lowest point:
Arctic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Exchange rates Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.7784 (January 2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)

head of government:
Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Odd Redar HUMLEGAARD (since NA)

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
Exports $NA
Flag description the flag of Norway is used
GDP purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 78 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area
Highways total:
NA km

NA km

NA km
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports $NA
Independence none (territory of Norway)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Infant mortality rate NA deaths/1,000 live births
Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
International organization participation none
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Labor force NA
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
Languages Russian, Norwegian
Legal system NA
Life expectancy at birth total population:
NA years

NA years

NA years
Location Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Map references Arctic Region
Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone:
200 NM unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia

territorial sea:
4 NM
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military - note demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
National holiday NA
Natural hazards ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Natural resources coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Net migration rate NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Population 2,332 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate -3.55% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios NA
Railways 0 km
Telephone system general assessment:
probably adequate

local telephone service

satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA
Terrain wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Total fertility rate NA children born/woman
Waterways none
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