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Senegal (2007)

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Senegal 2007 year

Administrative divisions 11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Age structure 0-14 years: 42% (male 2,656,122/female 2,608,423)

15-64 years: 55% (male 3,426,504/female 3,454,372)

65 years and over: 3% (male 176,877/female 199,553) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Airports 20 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 196,190 sq km

land: 192,000 sq km

water: 4,190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Dakota
Background The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The most significant threat within Senegal since the 1980s has been led by the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC). Although a peace agreement was signed in December 2004, internal rifts continue to keep the peace process deadlocked. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
Birth rate 37.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.975 billion

expenditures: $2.485 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Dakar

geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Coastline 531 km
Constitution adopted 7 January 2001
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

conventional short form: Senegal

local long form: Republique du Senegal

local short form: Senegal

former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia); Mali Federation
Death rate 10.96 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $1.437 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jay Thomas Smith

embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar

mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar

telephone: [221] 33-823-4296

FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA

chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Disputes - international The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
Economic aid - recipient $689.3 million (2005 est.)
Economy - overview In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2006. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the low single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Senegal was also beset by an energy crisis that caused widespread blackouts in 2006. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal will benefit from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt.
Electricity - consumption 1.456 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 2.223 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
Environment - current issues wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Ethnic groups Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 June 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president in the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $1.408 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners Mali 19.2%, France 8.3%, India 5.8%, Gambia, The 5.3%, Spain 5.1%, Italy 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 16.6%

industry: 19.2%

services: 64.1% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Geography - note westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 33.4% (2001)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $3.007 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners France 25.1%, UK 5.2%, Thailand 4.8%, China 4.5%, Spain 4% (2006)
Independence 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
Industrial production growth rate 3.2% (2006 est.)
Industries agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Infant mortality rate total: 60.15 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 64.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 56.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.1% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 1,200 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
Labor force 4.723 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 77%

industry and services: 23% (1990 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,640 km

border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Land use arable land: 12.51%

permanent crops: 0.24%

other: 87.25% (2005)
Languages French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Legal system based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote with the remaining members elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and the Senate reinstituted in 2007 (100 seats; 35 indirectly elected with the remaining 65 members to be appointed by the president)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2007 (next to be held 2012); note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006; legislative elections were first rescheduled to coincide with the 25 February 2007 presidential elections and later rescheduled for 3 June 2007; the June election was boycotted by 12 opposition parties, including the former ruling Socialist Party, that resulted in a record-low, 35-percent voter turnout; Senate - last held 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 131, other 19; Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 to be appointed by the president
Life expectancy at birth total population: 56.69 years

male: 55.34 years

female: 58.09 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 39.3%

male: 51.1%

female: 29.2% (2002 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Military branches Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Nationality noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese
Natural hazards lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Natural resources fish, phosphates, iron ore
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 43 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS) [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi [Idrissa SECK]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders labor; Sufi and Mouride brotherhoods; students; teachers
Population 12,521,851 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 54% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.645% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 906 km

narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000 meter gauge (2006)
Religions Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.018 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.992 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.886 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: good system

domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system

international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 282,600 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.983 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Terrain generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Total fertility rate 5 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 48%; note - urban youth 40% (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2005)
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