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Paraguay (2003)

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Paraguay 2003 year

Administrative divisions 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.4% (male 1,179,084; female 1,141,420)

15-64 years: 56.8% (male 1,721,867; female 1,707,918)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 132,145; female 154,466) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
Airports 879 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 868

1,524 to 2,437 m: 27

914 to 1,523 m: 323

under 914 m: 518 (2002)
Area total: 406,750 sq km

land: 397,300 sq km

water: 9,450 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than California
Background In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.
Birth rate 30.14 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.3 billion

expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (1999 est.)
Capital Asuncion
Climate subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution promulgated 20 June 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form: Paraguay

local long form: Republica del Paraguay

local short form: Paraguay
Currency guarani (PYG)
Death rate 4.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $3.2 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John F. KEANE

embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion

mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001

telephone: [595] (21) 213-715

FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Leila Teresa RACHID COWLES

chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962

FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508

consulate(s) general: Kansas City, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York
Disputes - international unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97; but GDP declined slightly in 1998, 1999, and 2000, rose slightly in 2001, only to fall again in 2002. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and external debt, and deficient infrastructure.
Electricity - consumption 2.637 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 39.11 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 44.89 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0%

hydro: 99.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.1% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

highest point: Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%
Exchange rates guarani per US dollar - 5,720.44 (2002), 4,105.92 (2001), 3,486.35 (2000), 3,119.07 (1999), 2,726.49 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 August 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI (since 15 August 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 August 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI (since 15 August 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held NA April 2008)

election results: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS elected president; percent of vote - Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS 37.1%, Julio Cesar Ramon FRANCO Gomez 23.9%, Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella 21.3%, Guillermo SANCHEZ Guffanti 13.5%, other 4.2%
Exports 39.11 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, electricity
Exports - partners Brazil 25.1%, Argentina 23%, Chile 5.5%, Bermuda 4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)
GDP purchasing power parity - $25.19 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 27%

industry: 27%

services: 46% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -2.7% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 23 00 S, 58 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
Highways total: 29,500 km

paved: 14,986 km

unpaved: 14,514 km (1999 est)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.5%

highest 10%: 43.8% (1998)
Illicit drugs major illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in South America; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, Europe, and US; corruption and some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery
Imports - partners Brazil 32.7%, Argentina 22.7%, US 18.1%, Hong Kong 4.7% (2002)
Independence 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 0% (2000 est.)
Industries sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products
Infant mortality rate total: 27.71 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 32.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10.5% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2000)
Irrigated land 670 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
Labor force 2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%
Land boundaries total: 3,920 km

border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Land use arable land: 5.54%

permanent crops: 0.21%

other: 94.25% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Legal system based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held NA May 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held NA May 2008)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 16, PLRA 12, UNACE 7, MPQ 7, PPS 2, PEN 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 37, PLRA 21, UNACE 10, MPQ 10, PPS 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.4 years

male: 71.89 years

female: 77.03 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94%

male: 94.9%

female: 93% (2003 est.)
Location Central South America, northeast of Argentina
Map references South America
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,475 GRT/36,101 DWT

ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 2, Japan 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $125 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,465,781 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,056,437 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 61,706 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 14 May (1811)
Nationality noun: Paraguayan(s)

adjective: Paraguayan
Natural hazards local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Natural resources hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Net migration rate -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS]; Movimiento Patria Querida or MPQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Colorados Eticos or UNACE [Lino Cesar OVIEDO Silva]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Diego ABENTE Brun]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Julio Cesar FRANCO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Political pressure groups and leaders Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Workers Central or CNT; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT
Population 6,036,900 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.54% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
Radio broadcast stations AM 46, FM 27, shortwave 6 (three inactive) (1998)
Railways total: 441 km

standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75
Telephone system general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion

domestic: fair microwave radio relay network

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 290,475 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 510,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 4 (2001)
Terrain grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Total fertility rate 4.02 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 18.2% (2002 est.)
Waterways 3,100 km
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