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Paraguay (2001)

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Paraguay 2001 year

Administrative divisions 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and one capital city; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion (city), Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Age structure 0-14 years:
38.9% (male 1,133,306; female 1,097,360)

15-64 years:
56.39% (male 1,622,743; female 1,610,659)

65 years and over:
4.71% (male 124,321; female 145,750) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (yucca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
Airports 915 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
535 (2000 est.)
Area total:
406,750 sq km

397,300 sq km

9,450 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than California
Background In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.
Birth rate 30.88 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.3 billion

$2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (1999 est.)
Capital Asuncion
Climate subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution promulgated 20 June 1992
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica del Paraguay

local short form:
Currency guarani (PYG)
Death rate 4.75 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $3 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador David N. GREENLEE

1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion

mailing address:
Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001

[595] (21) 213-715

[595] (21) 213-728
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Leila RACHID

2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962

[1] (202) 234-4508

consulate(s) general:
Detroit (honorary), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (honorary)
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97, but GDP declined slightly in 1998 and 1999. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and external debt, and deficient infrastructure. Growth rebounded slightly in 2000.
Electricity - consumption 1.915 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 46.03 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 51.554 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.15% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

highest point:
Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m
Environment - current issues deforestation (an estimated 2 million hectares of forest land were lost from 1958-85); water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many urban residents
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%
Exchange rates guarani per US dollar - 3,570.0 (January 2001), 3,486.4 (2000), 3,119.1 (1999), 2,726.5 (1998), 2,177.9 (1997), 2,056.8 (1996); note - since early 1998, the exchange rate has operated as a managed float; prior to that, the exchange rate was determined freely in the market
Executive branch chief of state:
President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); vice president Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); vice president Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Council of Ministers nominated by the president

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

election results:
Raul CUBAS Grau elected president; percent of vote - 55.3%; resigned 28 March 1999

President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI, formerly president of the Chamber of Senators, constitutionally succeeded President Raul CUBAS Grau, who resigned after being impeached soon after the assassination of Vice President Luis Maria ARGANA; the successor to ARGANA was decided in an election held in August 2000
Exports 46.03 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities electricity, soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils
Exports - partners Brazil, Argentina, EU
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)
GDP purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


51% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,750 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 23 00 S, 58 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil
Highways total:
25,901 km

3,067 km

22,834 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
46.6% (1995)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in South America; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Southern Cone markets and Europe
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery
Imports - partners Brazil, US, Argentina, Uruguay, EU, Hong Kong
Independence 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 0% (2000 est.)
Industries sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products
Infant mortality rate 29.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2000)
Irrigated land 670 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
Labor force 2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%
Land boundaries total:
3,920 km

border countries:
Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

7% (1993 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Legal system based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Chamber of Senators - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 25, PLRA 13, PEN 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 45, PLRA 26, PEN 9
Life expectancy at birth total population:
73.92 years

71.44 years

76.52 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


90.6% (1995 est.)
Location Central South America, northeast of Argentina
Map references South America
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,066 GRT/35,441 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $125 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,388,436 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,001,516 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
58,359 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 14 May (1811)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Natural resources hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Net migration rate -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Authentic Radical Liberal Party or PLRA [Miguel Abdon SAGUIER]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adalina GUITERREZ DE GALEANO]; Febrerista Revolutionary Party or PRF [Carlos Maria LJUBETIC]; National Encounter or PEN [Euclides ACEVEDO]; National Republican Association - Colorado Party [acting president Bader RACHID LICHI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Workers Central or CNT; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT
Population 5,734,139 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.6% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
Radio broadcast stations AM 46, FM 27, shortwave 6 (three inactive) (1998)
Radios 925,000 (1997)
Railways total:
971 km

standard gauge:
441 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
60 km 1.000-m gauge

there are 470 km of various gauges that are privately owned
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75
Telephone system general assessment:
meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion

fair microwave radio relay network

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 290,475 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 510,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 4 (2001)
Terrain grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Total fertility rate 4.11 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (2000 est.)
Waterways 3,100 km
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