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Norway (2003)

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Norway 2003 year

Administrative divisions 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Age structure 0-14 years: 19.9% (male 465,320; female 439,095)

15-64 years: 65.2% (male 1,501,608; female 1,462,590)

65 years and over: 14.9% (male 281,554; female 395,956) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Airports 102 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 66

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 26 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 36

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 29 (2002)
Area total: 324,220 sq km

land: 307,860 sq km

water: 16,360 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than New Mexico
Background Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that was to last for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Norway remained neutral in World War I and proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II. Nevertheless, it was not able to avoid a five-year occupation by Nazi Germany (1940-1945). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
Birth rate 12.17 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $71.7 billion

expenditures: $57.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Oslo
Climate temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Coastline 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Constitution 17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Death rate 9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $0 (Norway is a net external creditor)
Dependent areas Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ONG

embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo

mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707

telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50

FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870

consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Economy - overview The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices; in 1999, oil and gas accounted for 35% of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. The government has moved ahead with privatization. With arguably the highest quality of life worldwide, Norwegians still worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $43 billion. GDP growth was a lackluster 1% in 2002 and 2003 against the background of a faltering European economy.
Electricity - consumption 115.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 7.162 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 10.76 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 120.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.4%

hydro: 99.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.4% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Environment - current issues water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Norwegian, Sami 20,000
Exchange rates Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 7.98 (2002), 8.99 (2001), 8.8 (2000), 7.8 (1999), 7.55 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 19 October 2001)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament
Exports 7.162 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $68.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 50.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 3.466 million bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners UK 18.1%, Germany 13.8%, France 11%, US 9.2%, Netherlands 8.2%, Sweden 8% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
GDP purchasing power parity - $149.1 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.9%

industry: 30.8%

services: 67.3% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $33,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 62 00 N, 10 00 E
Geography - note about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world
Highways total: 91,454 km

paved: 69,505 km (including 143 km of expressways)

unpaved: 21,949 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)
Imports 10.76 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $37.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 88,870 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Sweden 17.7%, Germany 13.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 7.7%, US 5.7%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.2%, Italy 4% (2002)
Independence 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union
Industrial production growth rate 1.2% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Infant mortality rate total: 3.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.3% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 13 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,270 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Labor force 2.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 74%, industry 22%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4% (1995)
Land boundaries total: 2,544 km

border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
Land use arable land: 2.94%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 97.06% (1998 est.)
Languages Norwegian (official)

note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Legal system mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 24.3%, Conservative Party 21.2%, Progress Party 14.6%, Socialist Left Party 12.5%, Christian People's Party 12.4%, Center Party 5.6%, Liberal Party 3.9%, Coastal Party 1.7%, other 3.8%; seats by party - Labor Party 43, Conservative Party 38, Progress Party 26, Socialist Left Party 23, Christian People's Party 22, Center Party 10, Liberal Party 2, Coastal Party 1

note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.09 years

male: 76.15 years

female: 82.22 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 10 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 4 NM
Merchant marine total: 714 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 20,247,207 GRT/30,860,236 DWT

ships by type: bulk 68, cargo 136, chemical tanker 125, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 32, container 19, liquefied gas 86, multi-function large load carrier 1, passenger 6, petroleum tanker 127, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 44, short-sea passenger 20, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 34

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Denmark 14, Germany 11, Greece 10, Hong Kong 7, Iceland 2, Japan 11, Lithuania 1, Monaco 42, Poland 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 10, Sweden 42, Switzerland 2, UK 4, US 5 (2002 est.)
Military branches Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (including Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.113 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.13% (2002)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,099,314 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 910,628 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 27,249 (2003 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day, 17 May (1814); note - on 14 January 1814 Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden; resisting Swedish domination, Norwegians adopted a new constitution four months later; on 14 August 1814 Norway was proclaimed independent but in union with Sweden; on 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved
Nationality noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian
Natural hazards rockslides, avalanches
Natural resources petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate 2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 411 km; gas 6,199 km; oil 2,213 km; oil/gas/water 746 km; unknown (oil/water) 38 km; water 96 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd Svarstad HAUGLAND]; Coastal Party [Steinar BASTESEN]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,546,123 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.46% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 4,178 km

standard gauge: 4,178 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems

international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.735 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,080,408 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Total fertility rate 1.8 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.9% (2002 est.)
Waterways 1,577 km (along west coast)

note: navigable by 2.4 m maximum draft vessels
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