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Norway (2001)

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Norway 2001 year

Administrative divisions 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Age structure 0-14 years:
19.99% (male 462,673; female 437,514)

15-64 years:
64.91% (male 1,482,346; female 1,440,832)

65 years and over:
15.1% (male 282,307; female 397,768) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, other grains, potatoes; beef, milk; fish
Airports 103 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
28 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
31 (2000 est.)
Area total:
324,220 sq km

307,860 sq km

16,360 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than New Mexico
Background Despite its neutrality, Norway was not able to avoid occupation by Germany in World War II. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
Birth rate 12.6 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$71.7 billion

$57.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Oslo
Climate temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers causing glaciers to grow; rainy year-round on west coast
Coastline 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Constitution 17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Country name conventional long form:
Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form:

local long form:
Kongeriket Norge

local short form:
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Death rate 9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $0 (Norway is a net external creditor)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Robin Chandler DUKE

Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo

mailing address:
PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707

[47] (22) 44 85 50

[47] (22) 43 07 77
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK

2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 333-6000

[1] (202) 337-0870

consulate(s) general:
Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Economy - overview The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices; in 1999, oil and gas accounted for 35% of exports. Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than Norway. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. Growth picked up in 2000 to 2.7%, compared to the meager 0.8% of 1999, but may fall back in 2001. The government moved ahead with privatization in 2000, even proposing the sale of up to one-third of the 100% state-owned oil company Statoil. Despite their high per capita income and generous welfare benefits, Norwegians worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $43 billion.
Electricity - consumption 110.795 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 8.28 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 6.467 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 121.084 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.26% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point:
Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Environment - current issues water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Norwegian (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Sami 20,000
Exchange rates Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.7784 (January 2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government:
Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 March 2000)

State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament

none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the largest party or leader of a coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament
Exports 8.28 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $59.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners EU 73% (UK 17%, Germany 11%, Netherlands 10%, Sweden 9%), US 5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
GDP purchasing power parity - $124.1 billion (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


73% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.7% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 62 00 N, 10 00 E
Geography - note about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land boundary with Russia
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
91,180 km

67,838 km (including 109 km of expressways)

23,342 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
21.8% (1995)
Imports 6.467 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $35.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners EU 66% (Sweden 15%, Germany 12%, UK 9%, Denmark 7%), US 10%, Japan (1999)
Independence 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Infant mortality rate 3.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.9% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 13 (2000)
Irrigated land 970 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Labor force 2.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 74%, industry 22%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4% (1995)
Land boundaries total:
2,515 km

border countries:
Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

70% (1993 est.)
Languages Norwegian (official)

small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Legal system mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which, for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held 10 September 2001)

election results:
percent of vote by party - Labor Party 35%, Center Party 7.9%, Conservative Party 14.3%, Christian People's Party 13.7%, Socialist Left Party 6%, Progress Party 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%, other parties 1.6%; seats by party - Labor Party 65, Center Party 11, Conservative Party 23, Christian People's Party 25, Socialist Left Party 9, Progress Party 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1

for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting
Life expectancy at birth total population:
78.79 years

75.87 years

81.92 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


Location Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
10 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
4 NM
Merchant marine total:
764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,667,370 GRT/32,100,208 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 89, cargo 139, chemical tanker 114, combination bulk 9, combination ore/oil 37, container 15, liquefied gas 84, passenger 10, petroleum tanker 151, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 45, short-sea passenger 22, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 38

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Japan 1, Mexico 1, Sweden 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.113 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.1% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,101,384 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
913,534 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
27,341 (2001 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day, 17 May (1814); note - 17 May 1814 is the date of independence from Sweden, 7 June 1905 is the date Norway declared the union with Sweden was dissolved
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards rockslides, avalanches
Natural resources petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines refined petroleum products 53 km
Political parties and leaders Center Party [Odd Roger ENOKSEN]; Christian People's Party [Kiell Magne BONDEVIK]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,503,440 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.49% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 4.03 million (1997)
Railways total:
4,012 km

standard gauge:
4,012 km 1.435-m gauge (2,530 km electrified; 96 km double track) (1998)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed wire systems

2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.735 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,080,408 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Total fertility rate 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 3% (2000 est.)
Waterways 1,577 km (along west coast)

navigable by 2.4 m maximum draft vessels
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