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Montenegro (2007)

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Montenegro 2007 year

Administrative divisions 21 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pluzine, Pljevlja, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Agriculture - products grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible
Airports 5 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 14,026 sq km

land: 13,812 sq km

water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Background The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Birth rate 11.18 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: NA

expenditures: NA
Capital name: Podgorica (administrative capital)

geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Cetinje (capital city)
Climate Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Coastline 293.5 km
Constitution 12 October 1992 (was approved by the Assembly); note - Montenegro is currently writing a new constitution set to be presented to Parliament in spring 2007
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Montenegro

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: Republika Crna Gora

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Death rate 8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roderick W. MOORE

embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [382] 81 225 417

FAX: [382] 81 241 358
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Miodrag VLAHOVIC

chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108

FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview The republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, used the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. On 18 January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization as well as negotiating a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in anticipation of eventual membership. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector.
Electricity - consumption 18.6 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - international agreements party to: Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
Ethnic groups Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12%
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8089 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Zeljko STURANOVIC (since 13 November 2006)

cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet

elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly

election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
Exports $171.3 million (2003)
Exports - partners Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 42 30 N, 19 18 E
Geography - note strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Heliports 1 (2007)
Imports $601.7 million (2003)
Imports - partners Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2% (2006)
Independence 3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
Industries steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.4% (2004)
International organization participation CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICCt, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Labor force 259,100 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 2%

industry: 30%

services: 68% (2004 est.)
Land boundaries total: 625 km

border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
Land use arable land: 13.7%

permanent crops: 1%

other: 85.3%
Languages Serbian (official; Ijekavian dialect), Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats in 2006)

elections: last held 10 September 2006 (next to be held 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 40.6%, Serbian List 15.3%, Coalition SNP-NS-DSS 14.8%, PZP 13.9%, Liberals and Bosniaks 3.8%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 11.6%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Serbian List 12, Coalition SNP/NS/DSS 11, PZP 11, Liberals and Bosniaks 3, Albanian minority parties 5
Location Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: defined by treaty
Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 9,458 GRT/10,172 DWT

by type: cargo 4

registered in other countries: 3 (Bahamas 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Military - note Montenegrin plans call for the establishment of a fully professional armed forces
National holiday National Day, 13 July (1878)
Nationality noun: Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Montenegrin
Natural hazards destructive earthquakes
Natural resources bauxite, hydroelectricity
Political parties and leaders Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]; Coalition for European Montenegro or DPS-SDP (bloc) [Milo DUKANOVIC] (includes DPS and SDP); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes SNP, NS, and DSS); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; Liberals and the Bosniak Party (bloc) [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] (includes LP and BS); Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC]; Serbian List (bloc) [Andrija MANDIC] (includes SSR, NSS, and SNS); Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
Population 684,736 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 12.2% (2003)
Population growth rate -1% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations 31 (station types NA) (2004)
Railways total: 250 km

standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2006)
Religions Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

domestic: GSM wireless service, available through 2 providers with national coverage, is growing rapidly

international: country code - 382 (the old code of 381 used by Serbia and Montenegro will also remain in use until Feb 2007); 2 international switches connect the national system
Telephones - main lines in use 353,300 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 821,800 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 13 (2004)
Terrain highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Unemployment rate 27.7% (2005)
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