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Meksyk (2008)

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Meksyk 2008 roku

 Meksyk
Podzial administracyjny 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Meksyk, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.1% (male 16,696,089/female 16,011,563)


15-64 years: 64% (male 33,624,812/female 35,925,372)


65 years and over: 5.9% (male 2,917,563/female 3,525,492) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
Lotniska 1,834 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 231


over 3,047 m: 12


2,438 to 3,047 m: 29


1,524 to 2,437 m: 84


914 to 1,523 m: 77


under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 1,603


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 63


914 to 1,523 m: 408


under 914 m: 1,131 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,972,550 sq km


land: 1,923,040 sq km


water: 49,510 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Meksyk came under Spanish rule dla three centuries before achieving independence early w the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso w late 1994 threw Meksyk into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession w over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment dla a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities dla the largely Amerindian population w the impoverished southern states. The elections held w 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party w government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded w 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.36 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $209.2 billion


expenditures: $209.2 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Meksyk (Distrito Federal)


geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W


time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday w kwiecien; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik


note: Meksyk is divided into three time zones
Klimat varies from tropical to desert
Linia brzegowa 9,330 km
Konstytucja 5 luty 1917
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: United Mexican States


conventional short form: Meksyk


local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos


local short form: Meksyk
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.76 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $182 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio O. GARZA, Jr.


embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Meksyk, Distrito Federal


mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000


telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000


FAX: [52] (55) 5511-9980


consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana


consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Arturo SARUKHAN Casamitjana


chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006


telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600


FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Omaha, Orlando, Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Juan (Portoryko)


consulate(s): Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Indienapolis (Indiena), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo (Texas), Las Vegas, Little Rock (Arkansas), McAllen (Texas), New Orleans, Omaha, Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Presidio (Texas), Raleigh, Saint Paul (Minnesota), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson, Yuma (Arizona)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje abundant rainfall w recent years along much of the Meksyk-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border z Meksyk; Meksyk must deal z thousands of impoverished Gwatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking dla work w Meksyk and the Stany Zjednoczone
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $189.4 million (2005)
Ekonomia Meksyk has a free market economy w the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition w seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade z the US and Kanada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA w 1994. Meksyk has 12 free trade agreements z over 40 countries including, Gwatemala, Honduras, Salwador, the European Free Trade Terytorium, and Japonia, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2007, during his first year w office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass a pension and a fiscal reform. The administration continues to face many economic challenges including the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize labor laws, and allow private investment w the energy sector. CALDERON has stated that his top economic priorities remain reducing poverty and creating jobs.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 183.3 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.597 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 470.7 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 222.4 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m


highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted w north, inaccessible and poor quality w center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers w urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution w the national capital and urban centers along US-Meksyk border; land subsidence w Valley of Meksyk caused by groundwater depletion


note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Mexican pesos per US dollar - 10.8 (2007), 10.899 (2006), 10.898 (2005), 11.286 (2004), 10.789 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 grudzien 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 grudzien 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a single six-year term; election last held on 2 lipiec 2006 (next to be held 1 lipiec 2012)


election results: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON 35.89%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR 35.31%, Roberto MADRAZO 22.26%, other 6.54%
Eksport 1.597 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $267.5 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 282.9 million cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 2.268 million bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy US 84.7%, Kanada 2.1%, Hiszpania 1.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus z a snake w its beak) is centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.9%


industry: 26.3%


services: 69.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 23 00 N, 102 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated w Meksyk
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.2%


highest 10%: 37% (2006)
Narkotyki major drug-producing nation; cultivation of opium poppy w 2005 amounted to 3,300 hectares yielding a potential production of 8 metric tons of pure heroin, or 17 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin w the western Stany Zjednoczone; marijuana cultivation decreased 3% to 5,600 hectares w 2005 - just two years after a decade-high cultivation peak w 2003 - and yielded a potential production of 10,100 metric tons; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program w the world; continues as the primary transshipment country dla US-bound cocaine from South America, z an estimated 90% of annual cocaine movements towards the US stopping w Meksyk; major drug syndicates control majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market
Import 470.7 million kWh (2005)
Import $279.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 9.717 billion cu m (2005)
Import 308,500 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts dla assembly, repair parts dla motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
Import - partnerzy US 50.9%, Chiny 9.5%, Japonia 6%, South Korea 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 16 wrzesien 1810 (declared); 27 wrzesien 1821 (recognized by Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 19.63 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 21.54 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 17.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.8% (2007)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CDB, CE (observer), CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 63,200 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president z consent of the Senate)
Sila robocza 45.38 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 18%


industry: 24%


services: 58% (2003)
Granica total: 4,353 km


border countries: Belize 250 km, Gwatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.66%


permanent crops: 1.28%


other: 86.06% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish, various majan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
System prawny mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Federal Chamber of Deputies or Camara Federal de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; to serve three-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 2 lipiec 2006 dla all of the seats (next to be held 1 lipiec 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2 lipiec 2006 (next to be held 5 lipiec 2009)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAN 52, PRI 33, PRD 26, PVEM 6, CD 5, PT 5, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAN 207, PRD 127, PRI 106, PVEM 17, CD 17, PT 11, other 15
Zywotnosc total population: 75.63 years


male: 72.84 years


female: 78.56 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 91%


male: 92.4%


female: 89.6% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Meksyk, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Ocean Spokojny, between Gwatemala and the US
Lokalizacja na mapie North America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 60 ships (1000 GRT or over) 802,128 GRT/1,157,971 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 4, passenger/cargo 11, petroleum tanker 25, roll on/roll off 5


foreign-owned: 4 (Dania 2, Norwegia 1, UAE 1)


registered w other countries: 14 (Brazylia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 1, Panama 4, Portugalia 1, Hiszpania 3, Wenezuela 3) (2007)
Wojsko Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Meksyk, ARM, includes Naval Air Force (FAN) and Marines) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.5% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 16 wrzesien (1810)
Narodowosc noun: Mexican(s)


adjective: Mexican
Naturalne zagrozenia tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes w the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Meksyk, and Caribbean coasts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Wspolczynnik migracji -4.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 22,705 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,875 km; oil 8,688 km; oil/gas/water 228 km; refined products 6,520 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Convergence dla Democracy or CD [Luis MALDONADO Venegas]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Beatriz PAREDES]; Labor Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [German MARTINEZ Cazares]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Jorge Antonio KAHWAGI Macari]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Social Democratic and Peasant Alternative Party (Partido Alternativa Socialdemocrata y Campesina) or Alternativa [Alberto BEGNE Guerra]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Broad Progressive Front or FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator dla Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Przemysl or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church
Ludnosc 108,700,891 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 13.8%


note: food-based poverty. Asset based poverty amounted to more than 40% (2006)
Przyrost naturalny 1.153% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 850, FM 545, shortwave 15 (2003)
Linie kolejowe total: 17,665 km


standard gauge: 17,665 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 6.3% (Pentecostal 1.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%), other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.043 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.936 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.828 male(s)/female


total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate telephone service dla business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system z 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable


domestic: low telephone density z about 18 fixed lines per 100 persons; privatized w grudzien 1990; despite the opening to competition w styczen 1997, Telmex remains dominant; legal challenges to Telmex's alleged anti-competitive behavior w the mobile and fixed-line markets culminated w a Swiat Trade Organization ruling w 2004 against Meksyk prompting some strengthening of the powers granted Meksyk's telecom regulator


international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable z access to the US, Wyspy Dziewicze, Canary Islands, Hiszpania, and Wlochy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Meksyk improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2005)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 19.861 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 57.016 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 236 (plus repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.39 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.7% plus underemployment of perhaps 25% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals) (2007)
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