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Mexico (2006)

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Mexico 2006 year

Administrative divisions 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Age structure 0-14 years: 30.6% (male 16,770,957/female 16,086,172)

15-64 years: 63.6% (male 33,071,809/female 35,316,281)

65 years and over: 5.8% (male 2,814,707/female 3,389,599) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
Airports 1,839 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 228

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 82

914 to 1,523 m: 77

under 914 m: 29 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,611

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 68

914 to 1,523 m: 460

under 914 m: 1,081 (2006)
Area total: 1,972,550 sq km

land: 1,923,040 sq km

water: 49,510 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Background The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) was sworn in on 1 December 2000 as the first chief executive elected in free and fair elections.
Birth rate 20.69 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $181 billion

expenditures: $184 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005)
Capital name: Mexico (Distrito Federal)

geographic coordinates: 19 24 N, 99 09 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico is divided into four time zones
Climate varies from tropical to desert
Coastline 9,330 km
Constitution 5 February 1917
Country name conventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico
Death rate 4.74 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $137.2 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio O. GARZA, Jr.

embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal

mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000

telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000

FAX: [52] (55) 5511-9980

consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana

consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto DE ICAZA Gonzalez

chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Omaha, Orlando, Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Indianapolis (Indiana), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo (Texas), Las Vegas, McAllen (Texas), Midland (Texas), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Presidio (Texas), Raleigh, Saint Paul (Minnesota), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson, Yuma (Arizona)
Disputes - international prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure in the border region have strained water-sharing arrangements with the US; the US has stepped up efforts to stem nationals from Mexico, Central America, and other parts of the world from illegally crossing the border with Mexico
Economic aid - recipient $1.166 billion (1995)
Economy - overview Mexico has a free market economy that recently entered the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has 12 free trade agreements with over 40 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. The FOX administration is cognizant of the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize the tax system and labor laws, and allow private investment in the energy sector, but has been unable to win the support of the opposition-led Congress. The next government that takes office in December 2006 will confront the same challenges of boosting economic growth, improving Mexico's international competitiveness, and reducing poverty.
Electricity - consumption 193.9 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 1.07 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 390.2 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 209.2 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m
Environment - current issues scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Exchange rates Mexican pesos per US dollar - 10.898 (2005), 11.286 (2004), 10.789 (2003), 9.656 (2002), 9.342 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate

elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held 2 July 2006 (next to be held 1 July 2012)

election results: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON (PAN) 35.89%, Andres Manuel Lopez OBRADOR (PRD) 35.31%, Roberto MADRAZO (PRI) 22.26%, other 6.54%
Exports 1.07 billion kWh (2003)
Exports $213.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Exports 1.863 million bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners US 85.7%, Canada 2%, Spain 1.4% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 25.9%

services: 70.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 23 00 N, 102 00 W
Geography - note strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
Heliports 1 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 35.6% (2002)
Illicit drugs major drug-producing nation; cultivation of opium poppy in 2004 amounted to 3,500 hectares, but opium cultivation stayed within the range - between 3,500 and 5,500 hectares - observed in nine of the last 12 years; potential production of 9 metric tons of pure heroin, or 23 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation decreased 23% to 5,800 hectares in 2004 after decade-high cultivation peak in 2003; potential production of 10,400 metric tons of marijuana in 2004; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, accounting for about 90% of estimated annual cocaine movement to the US; major drug syndicates control majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center
Imports 390.2 million kWh (2003)
Imports $223.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 7.85 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Imports 205,000 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
Imports - partners US 53.4%, China 8%, Japan 5.9% (2005)
Independence 16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 1.9% (2005 est.)
Industries food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 20.26 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.19 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2005 est.)
International organization participation APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CDB, CE (observer), CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOVIC, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 63,200 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia Nacional (justices or ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
Labor force 43.4 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 18%

industry: 24%

services: 58% (2003)
Land boundaries total: 4,353 km

border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km
Land use arable land: 12.66%

permanent crops: 1.28%

other: 86.06% (2005)
Languages Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Legal system mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Federal Chamber of Deputies or Camara Federal de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are directly elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote, also for three-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 2 July 2006 for all of the seats (next to be held 1 July 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2 July 2006 (next to be held 5 July 2009)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PAN 52, PRI 33, PRD 29, PVEM 6, CD 5, PT 2, PNA 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PAN 206, PRD 127, PRI 103, PVEM 18, CD 17, PT 16, other 13; note - election results pending certification
Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.41 years

male: 72.63 years

female: 78.33 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.2%

male: 94%

female: 90.5% (2003 est.)
Location Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US
Map references North America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 56 ships (1000 GRT or over) 751,607 GRT/1,129,234 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 6, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 4, passenger/cargo 9, petroleum tanker 25, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 5 (Denmark 2, France 1, Norway 1, UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 15 (Belize 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 1, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 3, Venezuela 3) (2006)
Military branches Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico, ARM, includes Naval Air Force (FAN) and Marines) (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $6.07 billion (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Nationality noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican
Natural hazards tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
Natural resources petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Net migration rate -4.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 22,705 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,875 km; oil 8,688 km; oil/gas/water 228 km; refined products 6,520 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party (Institutional Revolutionary Party) or PRI [leader NA]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Manuel ESPINO Barrientos]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Miguel Angel JIMENEZ Godines]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church
Population 107,449,525 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 40% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 1.16% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 850, FM 545, shortwave 15 (2003)
Railways total: 17,562 km

standard gauge: 17,562 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Religions nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Telephone system general assessment: low telephone density with about 18 main lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; the opening to competition in January 1997 improved prospects for development, but Telmex remains dominant

domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable

international: country code - 52; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (2005)
Telephones - main lines in use 19.512 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 47.462 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 236 (plus repeaters) (1997)
Terrain high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Total fertility rate 2.42 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.6% plus underemployment of perhaps 25% (2005 est.)
Waterways 2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals) (2005)
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