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Malezja (2008)

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Malezja 2008 roku

 Malezja
Podzial administracyjny 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, and Terengganu; and one federal territory (wilayah persekutuan) z three components, city of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.2% (male 4,118,086/female 3,884,403)


15-64 years: 62.9% (male 7,838,166/female 7,785,833)


65 years and over: 4.8% (male 526,967/female 667,831) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo Peninsular Malezja - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper, timber
Lotniska 116 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 36


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 8


914 to 1,523 m: 8


under 914 m: 6 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 80


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 72 (2007)
Terytorium total: 329,750 sq km


land: 328,550 sq km


water: 1,200 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than New Meksyk
Tlo historyczne During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates w the area of current Malezja; these were occupied by Japonia from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent w 1957. Malezja was formed w 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapur and the East Malezjan states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's history were marred by a Communist insurgency, Indonezjan confrontation z Malezja, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapur's secession from the Federation w 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malezja was successful w diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials, to expansion w manufacturing, services, and tourism.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.65 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $41.01 billion


expenditures: $46.96 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Kuala Lumpur


geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Putrajaya is referred to as administrative center not capital; Parliament meets w Kuala Lumpur
Klimat tropical; annual southwest (kwiecien to pazdziernik) and northeast (pazdziernik to luty) monsoons
Linia brzegowa 4,675 km (Peninsular Malezja 2,068 km, East Malezja 2,607 km)
Konstytucja 31 sierpien 1957 (amended many times, latest w 2007)
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Malezja


local long form: none


local short form: Malezja


former: Federation of Malaya
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $57.83 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador James KEITH


embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur 50400


mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152


telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000


FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador RAJMAH binti Hussain


chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700


FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Malezja has asserted sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Chiny, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions over the Wyspy Spratly, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malezja was not party to the marzec 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam on conducting marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries w the Johor and Singapur Straits; w listopad 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings w response to the Memorials and Countermemorials filed by the parties w 2003 and 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands, also claimed by Indonezja and Filipiny, to Malezja but left maritime boundary and sovereignty of Unarang rock w the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea w dispute; separatist violence w Tajlandia's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border z Malezja to stem terrorist activities; Filipiny retains a dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo; Brunei and Malezja are still considering international adjudication over their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds, where hydrocarbon exploration was terminated w 2003; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $31.6 million (2005)
Ekonomia Malezja, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Since coming to office w 2003, Prime Minister ABDULLAH has tried to move the economy farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments w high technology industries, medical technology, and pharmaceuticals. The Government of Malezja is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand to wean the economy off of its dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malezja has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies. Malezja "unpegged" the ringgit from the US dollar w 2005 and the currency appreciated 6% per year against the dollar w 2006-07. Although this has helped to hold down the price of imports, inflationary pressures began to build w 2007. Healthy foreign exchange reserves and a small external debt greatly reduce the risk that Malezja will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one w 1997. The government presented its five-year national development agenda w kwiecien 2006 through the Ninth Malezja Plan, a comprehensive blueprint dla the allocation of the national budget from 2006-10. With national elections expected within the year, ABDULLAH has unveiled a series of ambitious development schemes dla several regions that have had trouble attracting business investment. Real Produkt krajowy brutto growth has averaged about 6% per year under ABDULLAH, but regions outside of Kuala Lumpur and the manufacturing hub Penang have not fared as well.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 78.72 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 82.36 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonezjan forest fires
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Grupy etniczne Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indien 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)
Kurs waluty ringgits per US dollar - 3.46 (2007), 3.6683 (2006), 3.8 (2005), 3.8 (2004), 3.8 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin (since 13 grudzien 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 pazdziernik 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (since 7 styczen 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament z consent of the paramount ruler


elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states dla five-year terms; election last held on 3 listopad 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats w the House of Representatives becomes prime minister


election results: Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin elected paramount ruler


note: position of paramount ruler is primarily ceremonial; w practice, selection is based on principle of rotation among rulers of states
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $169.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 29.06 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 611,200 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals
Eksport - partnerzy US 18.8%, Singapur 15.4%, Japonia 8.9%, Chiny 7.2%, Tajlandia 5.3%, Hong Kong 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating z white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle w the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.6%


industry: 47.8%


services: 43.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 2 30 N, 112 30 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South Chiny Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.4%


highest 10%: 39.2% (2003 est.)
Narkotyki drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer dla domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $132.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 278,600 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 13.3%, US 12.6%, Chiny 12.2%, Singapur 11.7%, Tajlandia 5.5%, Tajwan 5.5%, South Korea 5.4%, Niemcy 4.4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 31 sierpien 1957 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl Peninsular Malezja - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 16.62 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 19.26 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.1%


note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 3,650 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Civil Courts include Federal Court, Court of Appeal, High Court of Malaya on peninsula Malezja, and High Court of Sabah and Sarawak w states of Borneo (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister); Sharia Courts include Sharia Appeal Court, Sharia High Court, and Sharia Subordinate Courts at state-level and deal z religious and family matters such as custody, divorce, and inheritance, only dla Muslims; decisions of Sharia courts cannot be appealed to civil courts
Sila robocza 10.91 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 13%


industry: 36%


services: 51% (2005 est.)
Granica total: 2,669 km


border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonezja 1,782 km, Tajlandia 506 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 5.46%


permanent crops: 17.54%


other: 77% (2005)
Jezyki Bahasa Malezja (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai


note: w East Malezja there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
System prawny based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; Islamic law is applied to Muslims w matters of family law and religion; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 appointed by paramount ruler, 26 elected by 13 state legislatures; to serve three-year terms z limit of two terms) and House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (219 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - after next election House will have 222 seats


elections: House of Representatives - last held on 21 marzec 2004 (next to be held on 8 marzec 2008)


election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - BN 63.9%, BA 24.1%, DAP 9.9%, others 2.1%; seats by coalition/party - BN 199, BA 8, DAP 12
Zywotnosc total population: 72.76 years


male: 70.05 years


female: 75.65 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 88.7%


male: 92%


female: 85.4% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Tajlandia and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonezja, Brunei, and the South Chiny Sea, south of Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary w the South Chiny Sea
Flota handlowa total: 304 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,154,877 GRT/8,364,578 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 98, chemical tanker 30, container 47, liquefied gas 30, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 68, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 4


foreign-owned: 43 (Chiny 1, Niemcy 2, Hong Kong 14, Japonia 4, Singapur 22)


registered w other countries: 67 (Bahamas 11, Kiribati 1, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Mongolia 1, Panama 14, Filipiny 2, Singapur 28, Tajlandia 3, US 4, unknown 1) (2007)
Wojsko Malezjan Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malezja, ATM): Malezjan Army (Tentera Darat Malezja), Royal Malezjan Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malezja, TLDM), Royal Malezjan Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malezja, TUDM) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.03% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Malezja Day, 31 sierpien (1957)
Narodowosc noun: Malezjan(s)


adjective: Malezjan
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding, landslides, forest fires
Surowce naturalne tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population


note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries w the region (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 282 km; gas 5,273 km; oil 1,750 km; oil/gas/water 19 km; refined products 114 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malezja Party or PGRM [KOH Tsu Koon - acting]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malezjan Chinese Association (Persatuan Chiny Malezja) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malezjan Indien Congress (Kongres Indie Malezja) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malezja) or PPP [M.Kayveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWAN]); opposition parties: Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA (consists of PAS and PKR); Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malezja (Parti Islam se Malezja) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 24,821,286 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 5.1% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.759% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 35, FM 391, shortwave 15 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,890 km


standard gauge: 57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 1,833 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, none 0.8% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.007 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.789 male(s)/female


total population: 1.012 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 21 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern system; international service excellent


domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malezja mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system z 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity approaching 100 per 100 persons


international: country code - 60; landing point dla several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski, 1 Ocean Spokojny) (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 4.342 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 19.464 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 88 (mainland Malezja 51, Sabah 16, and Sarawak 21) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.01 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,200 km


note: Peninsular Malezja 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km (2005)
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