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Malaysia (2003)

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Malaysia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 3 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Putrajaya*, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is within the federal territory of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable;
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.7% (male 4,001,507; female 3,777,896)

15-64 years: 61.9% (male 7,163,252; female 7,131,745)

65 years and over: 4.4% (male 447,230; female 571,310) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper; timber
Airports 114 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 35

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 79

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 72 (2002)
Area total: 329,750 sq km

land: 328,550 sq km

water: 1,200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than New Mexico
Background Malaysia was formed in 1963 through a federation of the former British colonies of Malaya and Singapore, including the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo. The first several years of the country's history were marred by Indonesian efforts to control Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's secession from the federation in 1965.
Birth rate 23.7 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $20.3 billion

expenditures: $27.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.4 billion (2001 est.)
Capital Kuala Lumpur
Climate tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Coastline 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Constitution 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Malaysia

former: Federation of Malaysia
Currency ringgit (MYR)
Death rate 5.12 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $47.5 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marie T. HUHTALA

embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur

mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; American Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152

telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000

FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador GHAZZALI bin Sheikh Abdul Khalid

chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700

FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international involved in complex dispute over Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam and possibly Brunei; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; disputes over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation on Johor, maritime boundaries, and Singapore-occupied Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih persist - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands off the coast of Sabah, also claimed by Indonesia and Philippines, to Malaysia; a small section of the Malaysia-Thailand boundary in the Kolok River remains in dispute
Economy - overview Malaysia, a middle-income country, transformed itself from 1971 through the late 1990s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Growth was almost exclusively driven by exports - particularly of electronics - and, as a result Malaysia was hard hit by the global economic downturn and the slump in the Information Technology (IT) sector in 2001. GDP in 2001 grew only 0.5% due to an estimated 11% contraction in exports, but a substantial fiscal stimulus package mitigated the worst of the recession and the economy rebounded in 2002. Healthy foreign exchange reserves and relatively small external debt make it unlikely that Malaysia will experience a crisis similar to the one in 1997, but the economy remains vulnerable to a more protracted slowdown in Japan and the US, top export destinations and key sources of foreign investment.
Electricity - consumption 63.48 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 75 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 68.34 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89.5%

hydro: 10.5%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 24%, Indian 8%, others 10% (2000)
Exchange rates ringgits per US dollar - 3.8 (2002), 3.8 (2001), 3.8 (2000), 3.8 (1999), 3.92 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Paramount Ruler Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail, the Raja of Perlis (since 12 December 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 October 2003); Deputy Prime Minister NA (since 31 October 2003)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler

elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 12 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister

election results: Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail elected paramount ruler
Exports 75 million kWh (2001)
Exports $95.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 22.41 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals (2000)
Exports - partners US 21%, Singapore 17.4%, Japan 10.9%, China 6.5%, Hong Kong 5%, Thailand 4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US
GDP purchasing power parity - $198.4 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 12%

industry: 40%

services: 48% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 30 N, 112 30 E
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 65,877 km

paved: 49,935 km (including 1,192 km of expressways)

unpaved: 15,942 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 38.4% (1997 est.)
Illicit drugs transit point for some illicit drugs; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $76.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals (2000)
Imports - partners Japan 16.9%, Singapore 15.9%, US 15.5%, China 7.3%, South Korea 5%, Taiwan 4.7% (2002)
Independence 31 August 1957 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2002 est.)
Industries Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Infant mortality rate total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 7 (2000)
Irrigated land 3,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)
Labor force 9.9 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation local trade and tourism 28%, manufacturing 27%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 16%, services 10%, government 10%, construction 9% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,669 km

border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Land use arable land: 5.54%

permanent crops: 17.61%

other: 76.85% (1998 est.)
Languages Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; note - in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken, the largest are Iban and Kadazan
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (193 seats; members elected by popular vote weighted toward the rural Malay population to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 29 November 1999 (next must be held by November 2004)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - BN 56%, other 44%; seats by party - BN 148, PAS 27, DAP 10, Keadilan 5, PBS 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.67 years

male: 69.01 years

female: 74.51 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.9%

male: 92.4%

female: 85.4% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 366 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,111,476 GRT/7,242,323 DWT

ships by type: bulk 62, cargo 103, chemical tanker 37, container 69, liquefied gas 23, livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 55, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, China 1, Germany 2, Hong Kong 15, Indonesia 3, Japan 4, Monaco 1, Philippines 2, Singapore 78, South Korea 2, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Field Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.69 billion (FY00 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.03% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 6,067,155 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,672,517 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 21 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 218,216 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August (1957)
Nationality noun: Malaysian(s)

adjective: Malaysian
Natural hazards flooding, landslides, forest fires
Natural resources tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 279 km; gas 5,047 km; oil 1,841 km; refined products 114 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders ruling coalition parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or PGRM [LIM Kheng Yaik]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [CHONG Kah Kiat]; Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LING Ong Ka Ting]; Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongresi India Malaysia) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bangsa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Leo MOGGIE]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [WONG Soon Kah]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [leader NA]; opposition parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KERK Kim Hock]; Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; National Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Nasional) or Keadilan [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (the ruling coalition dominated by the UMNO and includes MCA, MIC, PGRM, PBDS, SUPP, PBB, PBS, LDP, SAPP, UPKO) [ABDULLAH Ahmad Badawi]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 23,092,940 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 8% (1998 est.)
Population growth rate 1.86% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bintulu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, George Town (Penang), Port Dickson, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjung Berhala, Tanjung Kidurong, Tawau
Radio broadcast stations AM 35, FM 391, shortwave 15 (2001)
Railways total: 2,418 km

standard gauge: 57 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 2,361 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Muslim, Buddhist, Daoist, Hindu, Christian, Sikh; note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system; international service excellent

domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations

international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 4.6 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 15 high-power repeaters) (2001)
Terrain coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Total fertility rate 3.13 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.8% (2002 est.)
Waterways 7,296 km

note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km, Sarawak 2,518 km
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