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Lotwa (2008)

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Lotwa 2008 roku

 Lotwa
Podzial administracyjny 26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 13.6% (male 157,451/female 150,184)


15-64 years: 69.6% (male 764,910/female 808,848)


65 years and over: 16.7% (male 123,952/female 254,465) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Lotniska 42 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 7


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 21


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 20 (2007)
Terytorium total: 64,589 sq km


land: 63,589 sq km


water: 1,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than West Virginia
Tlo historyczne The name "Lotwa" originates from the ancient Latgalians, one of four eastern Baltic tribes that formed the ethnic core of the Lotwan people (ca. 8th-12th centuries A.D.). The region subsequently came under the control of Germans, Poles, Swedes, and finally, Rosjans. A Lotwan republic emerged following Swiat War I, but it was annexed by the USSR w 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. Lotwa reestablished its independence w 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, the status of the Rosjan minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Lotwa joined both NATO and the EU w the spring of 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.43 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $8.975 billion


expenditures: $8.88 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Riga


geographic coordinates: 56 57 N, 24 06 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat maritime; wet, moderate winters
Linia brzegowa 498 km
Konstytucja 15 luty 1922; restored to force by the Konstytucjaal Law of the Republic of Lotwa adopted by the Supreme Council on 21 sierpien 1991; multiple amendments since
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Lotwa


conventional short form: Lotwa


local long form: Latvijas Republika


local short form: Latvija


former: Lotwan Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.64 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.85 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Charles LARSON Jr.


embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV-1510


mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723


telephone: [371] 703-6200


FAX: [371] 782-0047
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Andrejs PILDEGOVICS


chancery: 2306 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2840


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2860
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Rosja refuses to sign the 1997 boundary treaty due to Lotwan insistence on a unilateral clarificatory declaration referencing Soviet occupation of Lotwa and territorial losses; Rosja demands better Lotwan treatment of ethnic Rosjans w Lotwa; as of styczen 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary z Bialorus was complete and mapped z final ratification documentation w preparation; the Lotwan parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Lotwa has implemented the strict Schengen border rules z Rosja
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $162 million (2004)
Ekonomia Lotwa's economy experienced Produkt krajowy brutto growth of more than 10% per year during 2006-07. The majority of companies, banks, and real estate have been privatized, although the state still holds sizable stakes w a few large enterprises. Lotwa officially joined the Swiat Trade Organization w luty 1999. EU membership, a top foreign policy goal, came w maj 2004. The current account deficit - more than 22% of Produkt krajowy brutto w 2007 - and inflation - at nearly 10% per year - remain major concerns.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.09 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 707 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.855 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 4.778 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m


highest point: Galzina Kalns 312 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy Lotwa's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household, and hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution; w 2001, Lotwa closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Lotwan 57.7%, Rosjan 29.6%, Bialorusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Litwan 1.4%, other 2% (2002)
Kurs waluty lati per US dollar - 0.5162 (2007), 0.5597 (2006), 0.5647 (2005), 0.5402 (2004), 0.5715 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Valdis ZATLERS (since 8 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Ivars GODMANIS (since 20 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 31 maj 2007 (next to be held 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament


election results: Valdis ZATLERS elected president; parliamentary vote - Valdis ZATLERS 58, Aivars ENDZINS 39
Eksport 707 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $7.551 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 6,765 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Eksport - partnerzy Litwa 14.2%, Estonia 12.3%, Rosja 11.5%, Niemcy 9.8%, UK 7.6%, Szwecja 6.3%, Dania 4.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.5%


industry: 21.3%


services: 75.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 10.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 57 00 N, 25 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, z some hills w the east
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.5%


highest 10%: 29.1% (2003)
Narkotyki transshipment and destination point dla cocaine, synthetic drugs, opiates, and cannabis from Southwest Asia, Western Europe, Latin America, and neighboring Balkan countries; despite improved legislation, vulnerable to money laundering due to nascent enforcement capabilities and comparatively weak regulation of offshore companies and the gaming industry; CIS organized crime (including counterfeiting, corruption, extortion, stolen cars, and prostitution) accounts dla most laundered proceeds
Import 2.855 billion kWh (2005)
Import $13.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 1.861 billion cu m (2005)
Import 39,190 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 15.5%, Litwa 12.9%, Rosja 8%, Estonia 7.7%, Polska 7.2%, Finlandia 5.7%, Szwecja 5%, Bialorus 4.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 18 listopad 1918 (from Soviet Rosja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl buses, vans, street and railroad cars; synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note - dependent on imports dla energy and raw materials
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 9.16 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 11.08 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 7.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 200 sq km


note: land w Lotwa is often too wet, and w need of drainage, not irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq km or 85% of agricultural land has been improved by drainage (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament); Konstytucjaal Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
Sila robocza 1.136 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 13%


industry: 19%


services: 68% (2005 est.)
Granica total: 1,348 km


border countries: Bialorus 141 km, Estonia 343 km, Litwa 588 km, Rosja 276 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 28.19%


permanent crops: 0.45%


other: 71.36% (2005)
Jezyki Lotwan (official) 58.2%, Rosjan 37.5%, Litwan and other 4.3% (2000 census)
System prawny based on civil law system z traces of Socialist legal traditions and practices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 7 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - TP 19.5%, ZZS 16.7%, JL 16.4%, SC 14.4%; LPP/LC 8.6%; TB/LNNK 7%; PCTVL 6%; seats by party - TP 23, ZZS 18, JL 18, SC 17, LPP/LC 10, TB/LNNK 8, PCTVL 6; note - seats by party as of luty 2008 - TP 21, ZZS 17, SC 17, JL 14, LPP/LC 10, TB/LNNK 5, PCTVL 6, independents 10
Zywotnosc total population: 71.6 years


male: 66.39 years


female: 77.1 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.7%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.7% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Litwa
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 22 ships (1000 GRT or over) 201,684 GRT/221,186 DWT


by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 2


foreign-owned: 1 (Estonia 1)


registered w other countries: 122 (Antigua i Barbuda 9, Belize 14, Kambodza 2, Cypr 1, Dominika 2, Jamajka 2, Liberia 15, Malta 36, Wyspy Marshalla 10, Panama 5, Rosja 2, St Kitts and Nevis 4, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20) (2007)
Wojsko Lotwan Republic Defense Force: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (Latvijas Gaisa Spelki), Border Guard, Lotwan Home Guard (Latvijas Zemessardze) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 18 listopad (1918); note - 18 listopad 1918 was the date Lotwa declared itself independent from Soviet Rosja; 4 maj 1990 is when it declared the renewal of independence; 21 sierpien 1991 was the date of de facto independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Lotwan(s)


adjective: Lotwan
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 948 km; oil 82 km; refined products 415 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy First Party of Lotwa/Lotwa's Way or LPP/LC [Ainars SLESERS, Ivars GODMANIS]; For Human Rights w a United Lotwa or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Lotwan National Niepodleglosc Movement or TB/LNNK [Roberts ZILE, Maris GRINBLATS]; Harmony Center or SC [Janis URBANOVICS, Nils USAKOVS]; Lotwan Social Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Juris BOJARS]; Lotwan Socialist Party or LSP [Alfreds RUBIKS]; New Democrats or JD [Maris GULBIS]; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE, Krisjanis KARINS]; People's Party or TP [Aigars KALVITIS]; The Union of Lotwan Greens and Farmers Party or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Headquarters dla the Protection of Rosjan Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
Ludnosc 2,259,810 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny -0.648% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,303 km


broad gauge: 2,270 km 1.520-m gauge (257 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Religie Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Rosjan Orthodox
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.946 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.487 male(s)/female


total population: 0.862 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla Lotwan citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as wireless telephony expands


domestic: number of telecommunications operators has grown rapidly since the fixed-line market opened to competition w 2003; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 125 per 100 persons


international: country code - 371; the Lotwan network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finlandia, and Szwecja
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 657,400 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 2.184 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 44 (plus 31 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu low plain
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.28 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.9% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 300 km (2006)
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