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Liban (2008)

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Liban 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beqaa, Beyrouth, Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.2% (male 525,199/female 504,240)

15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,255,624/female 1,361,265)

65 years and over: 7.1% (male 125,904/female 153,270) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Lotniska 7 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Terytorium total: 10,400 sq km

land: 10,230 sq km

water: 170 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Tlo historyczne Following the capture of Syria from the Ottoman Empire by Anglo-French forces w 1918, Francja received a mandate over this territory and separated out a region of Liban w 1920. Francja granted this area independence w 1943. A lengthy civil war (1975-1990) devastated the country, but Liban has since made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint dla national reconciliation - the Lebanese established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater voice w the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions w the government. Since the end of the war, Liban has conducted several successful elections, most militias have been disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, a radical Shi'a organization listed by the US State Department as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, retains its weapons. During Liban's civil war, the Arab League legitimized w the Ta'if Accord Syria's troop deployment, numbering about 16,000 based mainly east of Beirut and w the Bekaa Valley. Izrael's withdrawal from southern Liban w maj 2000 and the passage w pazdziernik 2004 of UNSCR 1559 - a resolution calling dla Syria to withdraw from Liban and end its interference w Lebanese affairs -encouraged some Lebanese groups to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well. The assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI and 20 others w luty 2005 led to massive demonstrations w Beirut against the Syrian presence ("the Cedar Revolution"), and Syria withdrew the remainder of its military forces w kwiecien 2005. In maj-czerwiec 2005, Liban held its first legislative elections since the end of the civil war free of foreign interference, handing a majority to the bloc led by Saad HARIRI, the slain prime minister's son. Liban continues to be plagued by violence - Hizballah kidnapped two Izraeli soldiers w lipiec 2006 leading to a 34-day conflict z Izrael. The LAF w maj-wrzesien 2007 battled Sunni extremist group Fatah al-Islam w the Nahr al-Barid Palestinian refugee camp; and the country has witnessed a string of politically motivated assassinations since the death of Rafiq HARIRI. Lebanese politicians w listopad 2007 were unable to agree on a successor to Emile LAHUD when he stepped down as president, creating a political vacuum.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 18.08 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $6.116 billion

expenditures: $9.421 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Beirut

geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters z hot, dry summers; Liban mountains experience heavy winter snows
Linia brzegowa 225 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1926; amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of pazdziernik 1989
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Lebanese Republic

conventional short form: Liban

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah

local short form: Lubnan

former: Greater Liban
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $34.67 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michele J. SISON

embassy: Awkar, Liban; (Awkar facing the Municipality)

mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Liban; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070

telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600

FAX: [961] (4) 544136
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Antoine CHEDID

chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300

FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324

consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Liban-Syria boundary are unclear z several sections w dispute; since 2000, Liban has claimed Shab'a Farms area w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force w Liban (UNIFIL) has been w place since 1978
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie Of the $7.6 billion w grants and loans pledged to Liban at the Paris III conference w styczen 2007, Beirut as of mid-grudzien 2007 had signed agreements dla $3 billion, including $1 billion w project financing, $750 million w direct budget support, $750 million w private sector credit, and $285 million w in-kind aid. About $500 million of the $1.7 billion pledged dla direct budget support has been disbursed to Liban. Donors w sierpien 2006 also pledged nearly $1.8 billion w aid to help Liban recover from the 2006 Izrael-Hizballah war. During the conflict, Arabia Saudyjska and Kuwejt provided $1.5 billion w concessional loans to the Lebanese central bank to maintain confidence w the Lebanese currency.
Ekonomia The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Liban's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Liban's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. In the years since, Liban has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. In an attempt to reduce the ballooning national debt, the Rafiq HARIRI government began an austerity program, reining w government expenditures, increasing revenue collection, and privatizing state enterprises, but economic and financial reform initiatives stalled and public debt continued to grow despite receipt of more than $2 billion w bilateral assistance at the Paris II Donors Conference. The Izraeli-Hizballah conflict w lipiec-sierpien 2006 caused an estimated $3.6 billion w infrastructure damage, and prompted international donors to pledge nearly $1 billion w recovery and reconstruction assistance. Donors met again w styczen 2007 and pledged over $7.5 billion to Liban dla development projects and budget support, conditioned on progress on Beirut's fiscal reform and privatization program. Internal Lebanese political tension continues to hamper economic activity, particularly w the tourism and retail sectors.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 10.58 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 455 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 9.183 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Kurs waluty Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2007), 1,507.5 (2006), 1,507.5 (2005), 1,507.5 (2004), 1,507.5 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: vacant (as of 24 listopad 2007); note - former President Emile LAHUD's term expired on 23 listopad 2007, and the Cabinet temporarily assumed presidential powers

head of government: Prime Minister Fuad SINIORA (since 30 czerwiec 2005); Deputy Prime Minister Elias MURR (since kwiecien 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next election orginally scheduled dla fall 2004 but was postponed beyond the constitutionally mandated 23 listopad deadline; under Syrian pressure, Parliament extended Lahoud's term dla three years); the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the National Assembly is a Shi'a Muslim

election results: dla 15 pazdziernik 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $3.099 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Eksport - partnerzy Syria 26.8%, UAE 12%, Szwajcaria 6%, Arabia Saudyjska 5.7%, Turcja 4.5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) z a green cedar tree centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.2%

industry: 18.4%

services: 76.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 0.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Polozenie geograficzne Nahr el Litani is the only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares w 2002 despite continued significant cannabis consumption; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and dla Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking
Import 455 million kWh (2005)
Import $10 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 102,300 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery
Import - partnerzy Syria 11.6%, Wlochy 9.8%, US 9.3%, Francja 7.7%, Niemcy 6.1%, Chiny 5%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 22 listopad 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl banking, tourism, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 23.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.6% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 1,040 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo four Courts of Cassation (three courts dla civil and commercial cases and one court dla criminal cases); Konstytucjaal Council (called dla w Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Sila robocza 1.5 million

note: w addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Granica total: 454 km

border countries: Izrael 79 km, Syria 375 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.35%

permanent crops: 13.75%

other: 69.9% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
System prawny mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held w four rounds on 29 maj, 5, 12, 19 czerwiec 2005 (next to be held 2009)

election results: percent of vote by group - NA; seats by group - Future Movement Bloc 36; Democratic Gathering 15; Development and Resistance Bloc 15; Free Patriotic Movement 15; Loyalty to the Resistance 14; Qornet Shewan 6; Lebanese Forces 5; Popular Bloc 4; Tripoli Independent Bloc 3; Kataeb Reform Movement 2; Syrian National Socialist Party 2; Tashnaq 2; Syrian Ba'th Party 1; Democratic Left 1; Democratic Renewal Movement 1; Kataeb Party 1; Nasserite Popular Movement 1; independent 4
Zywotnosc total population: 73.15 years

male: 70.67 years

female: 75.77 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.4%

male: 93.1%

female: 82.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Izrael and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm
Flota handlowa total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 132,871 GRT/140,011 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 14, livestock carrier 12, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 2

foreign-owned: 3 (Grecja 2, Syria 1)

registered w other countries: 55 (Antigua i Barbuda 1, Barbados 1, Kambodza 7, Komory 5, Cypr 1, Dominika 1, Egipt 1, Georgia 3, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 1, North Korea 3, Liberia 2, Malta 12, Mongolia 1, Panama 3, St Vincent and The Grenadines 7, Syria 4, unknown 2) (2007)
Wojsko Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Army, Navy, and Air Force (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.1% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 22 listopad (1943)
Narodowosc noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Lebanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state w a water-deficit region, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 43 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy 14 marzec Coalition: Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Tripoli Independent Bloc

Change and Reform Alliance Bloc: Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Tashnaq

Hizballah and Amal Alliance: Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]; Hizballah Party [Hassan NASRALLAH]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA'AD]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow none
Ludnosc 3,925,502 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 28% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.198% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 401 km

standard gauge: 319 km 1.435 m

narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050 m

note: rail system became unusable because of damage done during fighting w the 1980s and w 2006 (2006)
Religie Muslim 59.7% (Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%

note: 17 religious sects recognized
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.042 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.922 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.821 male(s)/female

total population: 0.944 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 21 years of age; compulsory dla all males; authorized dla women at age 21 z elementary education
System telefoniczny general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete

domestic: two wireless networks provide good service; political instability hampers privatization and deployment of new technologies; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership approaching 50 per 100 persons

international: country code - 961; submarine cable link to Cypr; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki); coaxial cable to Syria
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 681,400 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.103 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Liban and Anti-Liban Mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 20% (2006 est.)
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