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Lebanon (2001)

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Lebanon 2001 year

Administrative divisions 5 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beyrouth, Ech Chimal, Ej Jnoub, El Bekaa, Jabal Loubnane
Age structure 0-14 years:
27.57% (male 509,975; female 490,031)

15-64 years:
65.72% (male 1,136,995; female 1,247,184)

65 years and over:
6.71% (male 110,964; female 132,625) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Airports 8 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
10,400 sq km

10,230 sq km

170 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Background Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since 1991 and the end of the devastating 16-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions in the government. Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several successful elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains its weapons. Syria maintains about 25,000 troops in Lebanon based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League during Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies its continued military presence in Lebanon by citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if Accord. Israel's withdrawal from its security zone in southern Lebanon in May of 2000, however, has emboldened some Lebanese Christians and Druze to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well.
Birth rate 20.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$3.31 billion

$5.55 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Beirut
Climate Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Coastline 225 km
Constitution 23 May 1926, amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Taif Accord) of October 1989
Country name conventional long form:
Lebanese Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah

local short form:
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Death rate 6.39 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $9.6 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador David M. SATTERFIELD

Antelias, Beirut

mailing address:
P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Beirut; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002

[961] (4) 543600, 543600

[961] (4) 544136
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Farid ABBOUD

2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 939-6300

[1] (202) 939-6324

consulate(s) general:
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
Disputes - international Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October 1976; Lebanese government claims Shab'a Farms area of Israeli-occupied Golan Heights as a part of Lebanon from which Hizballah conducts cross-border attacks
Economic aid - recipient $3.5 billion (pledges 1997-2001)
Economy - overview The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery was helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid provided the main sources of foreign exchange. Lebanon's economy has made impressive gains since the launch in 1993 of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program. Real GDP grew 8% in 1994, 7% in 1995, 4% per year in 1996 and 1997 but slowed to 2% in 1998, -1% in 1999, and 1% in 2000. Annual inflation fell during the course of the 1990s from more than 100% to 0%, and foreign exchange reserves jumped from $1.4 billion to more than $6 billion. Burgeoning capital inflows have generated foreign payments surpluses, and the Lebanese pound has remained very stable for the past two years. Lebanon has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. Solidere, a $2-billion firm, has managed the reconstruction of Beirut's central business district; the stock market reopened in January 1996; and international banks and insurance companies are returning. The government nonetheless faces serious challenges in the economic arena. It has funded reconstruction by tapping foreign exchange reserves and by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. The newly re-installed HARIRI government's announced policies fail to address the ever-increasing budgetary deficits and national debt burden. The gap between rich and poor has widened in the 1990s, resulting in grassroots dissatisfaction over the skewed distribution of the reconstruction's benefits.
Electricity - consumption 7.86 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 654 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 7.748 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Exchange rates Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (January 2001), 1,507.5 (2000), 1,507.8 (1999), 1,516.1 (1998), 1,539.5 (1997), 1,571.4 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Emile LAHUD (since 24 November 1998)

head of government:
Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 23 October 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Issam FARES (since 23 October 2000)

Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and members of the National Assembly; the current Cabinet was formed in 1998

president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term; election last held 15 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim

election results:
Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes in favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $700 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities foodstuffs and tobacco, textiles, chemicals, precious stones, metal and metal products, electrical equipment and products, jewelry, paper and paper products
Exports - partners UAE 9%, Saudi Arabia 8%, Syria 6%, US 6%, Kuwait 6%, France 5%, Belgium 5%, Jordan 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $18.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


61% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Geography - note Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Highways total:
7,300 km

6,350 km

950 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs inconsequential producer of hashish; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication campaign started in the early 1990s has practically eliminated the opium and cannabis crops
Imports 654 million kWh (1999)
Imports $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, textiles, metals, fuels, agricultural foods
Imports - partners Italy 13%, France 11%, Germany 8%, US 7%, Switzerland 6%, Japan, UK, Syria (1999)
Independence 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles; mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil refining; metal fabricating
Infant mortality rate 28.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 22 (2000)
Irrigated land 860 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Labor force 1.3 million (1999 est.)

in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services NA%, industry NA%, agriculture NA%
Land boundaries total:
454 km

border countries:
Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

64% (1996 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Legal system mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

last held 27 August and 3 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - Muslim 57% (of which Sunni 25%, Sh'ite 25%, Druze 6%, Alawite less than 1%), Christian 43% (of which Maronite 23%); seats by party - Muslim 64 (of which Sunni 27, Sh'ite 27, Druze 8, Alawite 2), Christian 64 (of which Maronite 34)
Life expectancy at birth total population:
71.52 years

69.13 years

74.03 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


82.2% (1997 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 379,705 GRT/592,672 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 10, cargo 42, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, container 4, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 3

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Netherlands 1, Syria 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $343 million (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.8% (FY99/00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
980,412 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
605,332 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Nationality noun:
Lebanese (singular and plural)

Natural hazards dust storms, sandstorms
Natural resources limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
Political parties and leaders political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,627,774 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 28% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.38% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Antilyas, Batroun, Beirut, Chekka, El Mina, Ez Zahrani, Jbail, Jounie, Naqoura, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre
Radio broadcast stations AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 2.85 million (1997)
Railways total:
399 km (mostly unusable because of damage in civil war)

standard gauge:
317 km 1.435-m

narrow gauge:
82 km (1999)
Religions Muslim 70% (including Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 30% (including Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Protestant), Jewish NEGL%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.84 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education
Telephone system general assessment:
telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway

primarily microwave radio relay and cable

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine coaxial cables
Telephones - main lines in use 700,000 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 580,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Total fertility rate 2.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 18% (1997 est.)
Waterways none
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