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Kuba (2008)

Kuba - wybierz rok:
KubaKuba (2001) (porownaj)
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KubaKuba (2006) (porownaj)
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Kuba 2008 roku

 Kuba
Podzial administracyjny 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Kuba, Villa Clara
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 18.8% (male 1,100,672/female 1,042,327)


15-64 years: 70.5% (male 4,019,648/female 4,016,429)


65 years and over: 10.7% (male 554,043/female 660,924) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
Lotniska 165 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 70


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 18


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 31 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 95


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 23


under 914 m: 71 (2007)
Terytorium total: 110,860 sq km


land: 110,860 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Tlo historyczne The native Amerindian population of Kuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS w 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point dla the annual treasure fleets bound dla Hiszpania from Meksyk and Peru. Spanish rule, marked initially by neglect, became increasingly repressive, provoking an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. It was US intervention during the Spanish-American War w 1898 that finally overthrew Spanish rule. The subsequent Treaty of Paris established Kuban independence, which was granted w 1902 after a three-year transition period. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory w 1959; his iron rule has held the regime together since then. Kuba's Communist revolution, z Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country is now slowly recovering from a severe economic downturn w 1990, following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Kuba portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo w place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, air flights, or via the southwest border - is a continuing problem. The US Coast Guard intercepted 2,864 individuals attempting to cross the Straits of Florida w fiscal year 2006.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 11.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $35.01 billion


expenditures: $36.73 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Havana


geographic coordinates: 23 07 N, 82 21 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (listopad to kwiecien); rainy season (maj to pazdziernik)
Linia brzegowa 3,735 km
Konstytucja 24 luty 1976; amended lipiec 1992 and czerwiec 2002
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kuba


conventional short form: Kuba


local long form: Republica de Kuba


local short form: Kuba
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.14 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $16.79 billion (convertible currency); another $15-20 billion owed to Rosja (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA none; note - the US has an Interests Section w the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Michael E. PARMLY; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado, Havana; telephone: [53] (7) 833-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: [53] (7) 833-3700; protecting power w Kuba is Szwajcaria
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA none; note - Kuba has an Interests Section w the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Jorge BOLANOS Suarez; address: Kuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518; FAX: [1] (202) 797-8521
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $87.8 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia The government continues to balance the need dla economic loosening against a desire dla firm political control. It has rolled back limited reforms undertaken w the 1990s to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services. The average Kuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the downturn of the 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. Since late 2000, Wenezuela has been providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Kuba has been paying dla the oil, w part, z the services of Kuban personnel w Wenezuela, including some 20,000 medical professionals. In 2007, high metals prices continued to boost Kuban earnings from nickel and cobalt production. Havana continued to invest w the country's energy sector to mitigate electrical blackouts that had plagued the country since 2004.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 13.87 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 16.45 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m


highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Kurs waluty Convertible pesos per US dollar - 0.9259 (2007), 0.9231 (2006)


note: Kuba has two currencies w circulation: the Kuban peso (CUP) and the convertible peso (CUC); w kwiecien 2005 the official exchange rate changed from $1 per CUC to $1.08 per CUC (0.93 CUC per $1), both dla individuals and enterprises; individuals can buy 24 Kuban pesos (CUP) dla each CUC sold, or sell 25 Kuban pesos dla each CUC bought; enterprises, however, must exchange CUP and CUC at a 1:1 ratio.
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 luty 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 luty 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 luty 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 luty 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly or the 31-member Council of State, elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not w session


elections: president and vice presidents elected by the National Assembly dla a term of five years; election last held 24 luty 2008 (next to be held w 2013)


election results: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
Eksport 0 kWh (2006)
Eksport $3.231 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2006)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2006)
Eksport - towary sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee
Eksport - partnerzy Holandia 21.8%, Kanada 21.6%, Chiny 18.7%, Hiszpania 5.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi five equal horizontal bands of blue (top, center, and bottom) alternating z white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4.6%


industry: 26.1%


services: 69.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 21 30 N, 80 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone dla US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty dla certain drug-related crimes w 1999
Import 0 kWh (2006)
Import $10.86 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2006)
Import 98,100 bbl/day (2005)
Import - towary petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Wenezuela 26.6%, Chiny 15.6%, Hiszpania 9.8%, Niemcy 6.4%, Kanada 5.6%, Wlochy 4.4%, US 4.3%, Brazylia 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 20 maj 1902 (from Hiszpania 10 grudzien 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Kuban Government as a day of independence
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl sugar, petroleum, tobacco, construction, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 6.04 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 6.76 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 8,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
Sila robocza 4.853 million


note: state sector 78%, non-state sector 22% (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 20%


industry: 19.4%


services: 60.6% (2005)
Granica total: 29 km


border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km


note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and remains part of Kuba
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 27.63%


permanent crops: 6.54%


other: 65.83% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on Spanish civil law and influenced by American legal concepts, z large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (number of seats w the National Assembly is based on population; 614 seats; members elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 20 styczen 2008 (next to be held w styczen 2013)


election results: Kuba's Communist Party is the only legal party, and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed
Zywotnosc total population: 77.08 years


male: 74.85 years


female: 79.43 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.8%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.8% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Atlantycki, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 12 ships (1000 GRT or over) 35,030 GRT/51,388 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 2


foreign-owned: 1 (Hiszpania 1)


registered w other countries: 16 (Bahamas 1, Cypr 2, Antyle Holenderskie 1, Panama 11, Hiszpania 1) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi Moscow, dla decades the key military supporter and supplier of Kuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993
Wojsko Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, FAR): Revolutionary Army (ER; includes Territorial Militia Troops, MTT), Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria, MGR; includes Marine Corps), Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Youth Labor Army (EJT) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.8% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Triumph of the Revolution, 1 styczen (1959)
Narodowosc noun: Kuban(s)


adjective: Kuban
Naturalne zagrozenia the east coast is subject to hurricanes from sierpien to listopad (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Surowce naturalne cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ludzie - uwagi illicit emigration is a continuing problem; Kubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Kubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and over-land via the southwest border
Rurociagi gas 49 km; oil 230 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Kuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 11,394,043 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.273% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 4,226 km


standard gauge: 4,226 km 1.435-m gauge (140 km electrified)


note: an additional 7,742 km of track is used by sugar plantations; about 65% of this track is standard gauge; the rest is narrow gauge (2006)
Religie nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.056 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.001 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.838 male(s)/female


total population: 0.992 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 16 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: greater investment beginning w 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications w 2000 has resulted w improvements w the system; wireless service is expensive and must be paid w convertible pesos which effectively limits mobile cellular subscribership


domestic: national fiber-optic system under development; 95% of switches digitized by end of 2006; fixed telephone line density remains low, at less than 10 per 100 inhabitants; domestic cellular service expanding but remains at only about 2 per 100 persons


international: country code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 972,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 152,700 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 58 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat to rolling plains, z rugged hills and mountains w the southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.6 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 1.9% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 240 km (2007)
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